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© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. CH. 4 PHILOSOPHY The love, study, and pursuit of wisdom, knowledge, and truth Includes what we know, how we know it, and why it’s important that we know it. Research View p. 107 See p. 108
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. Five Traditional Philosophies Idealism - a philosophical theory advocating that reality depends on the mind for existence and that truth is universal and absolute Realism - the philosophical system stressing that the laws and order of the world as revealed by science are independent from human experiences Pragmatism - an American movement in philosophy emphasizing reality as the sum total of each individual’s experiences through practical experimentation Naturalism - a belief that the laws of nature govern life and that individual goals are more important than societal goals Existentialism - a twentieth-century philosophy that centers on individual existence and advocates that truth and values are arrived at by each person’s experiences
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IDEALISM - Truth is universal and absolute The mind is critical to all understanding, since only through reasoning and mental processes can truth emerge. Never-changing ideals comprise the ultimate reality. Ideals, virtues, and truths are universal and remain the same, regardless of how individuals may interpret them.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IDEALISM The mind and the body are optimally to be developed simultaneously, as a whole, although physical activity is secondary to the development of the mind and thought processes. The idealist believes that there is one correct way to perform sports skills.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. REALISM - Scientific laws are independent of human experiences The laws of nature determine what is truth. The scientific method provides the process for acquiring and applying truth, i.e., knowledge originates in the physical world but emerges through experimentation.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. REALISM The physical education curriculum includes activities and experiences that enable students to understand the laws of the physical world. Learning is subject-centered and includes progressions, drills, and objective evaluation.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PRAGMATISM - Reality is a total of individual experiences Ultimate reality must be experienced and is ever-changing rather than absolute. Truth and values are functions of the consequences of the time, and the context is considered good if successful. Social responsibilities are essential as every individual functions with and contributes to society.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PRAGMATISM Students develop social efficiency as they experience solving the problems of life and learn how to become better functioning members of society. A student-centered curriculum encourages students to develop their social and interpersonal skills and to set and achieve personal goals.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. NATURALISM - Laws of nature govern life and individual goals Truth and things valued exist within the physical realm of nature. “Everything according to nature” means that students learn and develop in and through nature. Physical well-being enhances a readiness to learn mental, moral, and social skills.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. NATURALISM Individualized learning occurs through self-discovery and exploration of one’s capabilities and interests. Through problem-solving, students progress in skill development at their own rates.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EXISTENTIALISM—Truth and values are based on one’s experiences Human experiences and individual determinism construct reality. Each person’s experiences determine truth, which is uniquely personal. An individual’s value system, which is totally controlled by choice, is tempered by an understanding of social responsibility.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EXISTENTIALISM The desired educational outcome is the self- actualizing person, who must accept the consequences of actions taken. Individualized activities in physical education and sport encourage creativity and self-awareness and personal responsibility for learning.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY p. 109 Idealism - simultaneous development with the mind Realism - emphasis on the whole individual Pragmatism - variety of activities for effective functioning in society Naturalism - physical activity essential for optimal learning Existentialism - freedom to choose activity and to be creative
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. CURRICULAR FOCUS Idealism - teacher centered, using examples as models; qualitative Realism - subject centered; quantitative Pragmatism - student centered; based on individual differences Naturalism - individual readiness to learn Existentialism - individual centered; based on self-realization
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IMPORTANCE OF THE TEACHER Idealism - model and example Realism - orderly presentation of facts; learning through drills Pragmatism - motivator, especially through problem solving Naturalism - guide and helper Existentialism - stimulator and counselor
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. OBJECTIVES Idealism - development of personality and mind Realism - training students to meet the realities of life Pragmatism - helping students to become better functioning members of society Naturalism - development of the whole person Existentialism - assisting students to become self-actualizing, independent beings
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. METHODOLOGY Idealism - lecture; question-answer discussions Realism - use of real world, drills, lectures, and projects Pragmatism - problem solving Naturalism - informal; problem solving Existentialism - questions raised, thoughts provoked, and freedom of action encouraged by the teacher
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EVALUATION Idealism - subjective; qualitative Realism - quantitative; using scientific means Pragmatism - subjective and self-evaluation Naturalism - based on the attainment of individual goals Existentialism - unimportant in the traditional sense
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. WEAKNESSES Idealism - resistance to change; development of the body is secondary to the mind Realism - too narrow a view; everything must conform to natural laws or it is wrong Pragmatism - lack of fixed aims to give students stability and direction Naturalism - too simple an education for a complex world Existentialism - overemphasis on individuality precludes preparation for social life
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. Sport Ethics
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. DEFINITIONS Ethics is the study of moral values or the doing of good toward others or oneself; the study of the principles of human duty; the study of all moral qualities that distinguish an individual relative to others. Morality pertains to an individual’s motives, intentions, and actions as right or wrong, virtuous or vicious, or good or bad. Values are anything having relative worth.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. DEFINITIONS Moral values are the relative worth that is placed on virtuous behaviors. Principles are universal rules of conduct that identify what kinds of actions, intentions, and motives are valued.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. A PLAN FOR FAIR PLAY Moral reasoning is the systematic process of evaluating personal values and developing a consistent and an impartial set of moral principles by which to live.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. FOUR MORAL VALUES 121 Justice (treating others with fairness) Do not violate the rules of the game. Honesty (being trustworthy) Do not cheat or lie. Responsibility (fulfilling duty) Do not act irresponsibly. Beneficence (fair play or doing good) Do not harm an opponent. See p. 124 Handout philosophy quiz
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© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 3 - 2ChapterChapter McGraw-Hill/Irwin Attitudes, Self- Concept, Values, and Ethics 3.
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