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© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. CH. 4 PHILOSOPHY The love, study, and pursuit of wisdom, knowledge, and truth  Includes what.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. CH. 4 PHILOSOPHY The love, study, and pursuit of wisdom, knowledge, and truth  Includes what."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. CH. 4 PHILOSOPHY The love, study, and pursuit of wisdom, knowledge, and truth  Includes what we know, how we know it, and why it’s important that we know it.  Research View p. 107  See p. 108

2 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. Five Traditional Philosophies  Idealism - a philosophical theory advocating that reality depends on the mind for existence and that truth is universal and absolute  Realism - the philosophical system stressing that the laws and order of the world as revealed by science are independent from human experiences  Pragmatism - an American movement in philosophy emphasizing reality as the sum total of each individual’s experiences through practical experimentation  Naturalism - a belief that the laws of nature govern life and that individual goals are more important than societal goals  Existentialism - a twentieth-century philosophy that centers on individual existence and advocates that truth and values are arrived at by each person’s experiences

3 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IDEALISM - Truth is universal and absolute  The mind is critical to all understanding, since only through reasoning and mental processes can truth emerge.  Never-changing ideals comprise the ultimate reality.  Ideals, virtues, and truths are universal and remain the same, regardless of how individuals may interpret them.

4 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IDEALISM  The mind and the body are optimally to be developed simultaneously, as a whole, although physical activity is secondary to the development of the mind and thought processes.  The idealist believes that there is one correct way to perform sports skills.

5 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. REALISM - Scientific laws are independent of human experiences  The laws of nature determine what is truth.  The scientific method provides the process for acquiring and applying truth, i.e., knowledge originates in the physical world but emerges through experimentation.

6 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. REALISM  The physical education curriculum includes activities and experiences that enable students to understand the laws of the physical world.  Learning is subject-centered and includes progressions, drills, and objective evaluation.

7 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PRAGMATISM - Reality is a total of individual experiences  Ultimate reality must be experienced and is ever-changing rather than absolute.  Truth and values are functions of the consequences of the time, and the context is considered good if successful.  Social responsibilities are essential as every individual functions with and contributes to society.

8 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. PRAGMATISM  Students develop social efficiency as they experience solving the problems of life and learn how to become better functioning members of society.  A student-centered curriculum encourages students to develop their social and interpersonal skills and to set and achieve personal goals.

9 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. NATURALISM - Laws of nature govern life and individual goals  Truth and things valued exist within the physical realm of nature.  “Everything according to nature” means that students learn and develop in and through nature.  Physical well-being enhances a readiness to learn mental, moral, and social skills.

10 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. NATURALISM  Individualized learning occurs through self-discovery and exploration of one’s capabilities and interests.  Through problem-solving, students progress in skill development at their own rates.

11 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EXISTENTIALISM—Truth and values are based on one’s experiences  Human experiences and individual determinism construct reality.  Each person’s experiences determine truth, which is uniquely personal.  An individual’s value system, which is totally controlled by choice, is tempered by an understanding of social responsibility.

12 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EXISTENTIALISM  The desired educational outcome is the self- actualizing person, who must accept the consequences of actions taken.  Individualized activities in physical education and sport encourage creativity and self-awareness and personal responsibility for learning.

13 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY p. 109  Idealism - simultaneous development with the mind  Realism - emphasis on the whole individual  Pragmatism - variety of activities for effective functioning in society  Naturalism - physical activity essential for optimal learning  Existentialism - freedom to choose activity and to be creative

14 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. CURRICULAR FOCUS  Idealism - teacher centered, using examples as models; qualitative  Realism - subject centered; quantitative  Pragmatism - student centered; based on individual differences  Naturalism - individual readiness to learn  Existentialism - individual centered; based on self-realization

15 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. IMPORTANCE OF THE TEACHER  Idealism - model and example  Realism - orderly presentation of facts; learning through drills  Pragmatism - motivator, especially through problem solving  Naturalism - guide and helper  Existentialism - stimulator and counselor

16 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. OBJECTIVES  Idealism - development of personality and mind  Realism - training students to meet the realities of life  Pragmatism - helping students to become better functioning members of society  Naturalism - development of the whole person  Existentialism - assisting students to become self-actualizing, independent beings

17 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. METHODOLOGY  Idealism - lecture; question-answer discussions  Realism - use of real world, drills, lectures, and projects  Pragmatism - problem solving  Naturalism - informal; problem solving  Existentialism - questions raised, thoughts provoked, and freedom of action encouraged by the teacher

18 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. EVALUATION  Idealism - subjective; qualitative  Realism - quantitative; using scientific means  Pragmatism - subjective and self-evaluation  Naturalism - based on the attainment of individual goals  Existentialism - unimportant in the traditional sense

19 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. WEAKNESSES  Idealism - resistance to change; development of the body is secondary to the mind  Realism - too narrow a view; everything must conform to natural laws or it is wrong  Pragmatism - lack of fixed aims to give students stability and direction  Naturalism - too simple an education for a complex world  Existentialism - overemphasis on individuality precludes preparation for social life

20 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. Sport Ethics

21 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. DEFINITIONS  Ethics is the study of moral values or the doing of good toward others or oneself; the study of the principles of human duty; the study of all moral qualities that distinguish an individual relative to others.  Morality pertains to an individual’s motives, intentions, and actions as right or wrong, virtuous or vicious, or good or bad.  Values are anything having relative worth.

22 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. DEFINITIONS  Moral values are the relative worth that is placed on virtuous behaviors.  Principles are universal rules of conduct that identify what kinds of actions, intentions, and motives are valued.

23 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. A PLAN FOR FAIR PLAY  Moral reasoning is the systematic process of evaluating personal values and developing a consistent and an impartial set of moral principles by which to live.

24 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. FOUR MORAL VALUES 121  Justice (treating others with fairness)  Do not violate the rules of the game.  Honesty (being trustworthy)  Do not cheat or lie.  Responsibility (fulfilling duty)  Do not act irresponsibly.  Beneficence (fair play or doing good)  Do not harm an opponent. See p. 124 Handout philosophy quiz


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