Presentation on theme: "Imperialism. Imperialism Topics Africa India China Japan “Imperialism is a Glorious Pursuit”"— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism Topics Africa India China Japan “Imperialism is a Glorious Pursuit”
Definition Imperialism is a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially Involves the takeover of a country or territory and its people (Risk in real life)
Motives—Why? Economic Political Religious Exploratory Ideological (Racism)
Key Themes Between , industrialized countries exploit overseas colonies for resources and markets. Western imperialists, with superior arms and technology, establish colonies in Asia and Africa; colonial rule, however, provokes native resistance and spurs feelings of nationalism. Countries in East Asia respond to Western imperialism in different ways; China initially resists foreign influence while Japan ends its isolation and begins to modernize like its Western counterparts.
Suez Canal Opened in 1869, it is a manmade waterway connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea Built by the French Why might it be important to European imperialism in Africa?
It was a strategic location as the shortest link between Europe and Asia!
Imperialists Divide Africa
Africa Before Imperialism Many ethnic groups but few Europeans rule in Africa African armies and traders kept Europeans out (equal technology, many people) Rivers were impassable, making it difficult to get inland
Competition Europeans learn about Africa from explorers (Muslims) Greed, nationalism, racism, and philanthropy (missionaries) motivate European colonialism
Competition A growing need for new markets and raw materials to improve their economies Superior arms (Maxim gun), the steam engine, medicines, and African rivalries help Europeans dominate Africa
Social Darwinism The application of Charles Darwin’s ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies Created by Herbert Spencer Justification for imperialist expansion
Social Darwinism Societies with more wealth, power and technology were superior to those without Europeans had a right and a duty (“burden”) to spread their values to others
Territorial Scramble The Berlin Conference ( ) divides Africa among European nations The division fails to take into account African ethnic and linguistic groupings Focus only on wants of European Nations
Berlin Conference Simulation Read directions and identify the goals of your countries Negotiate and discuss how best to divide the African continent Submit map and answers to reflection questions upon completion of exercise Time: ~ 45 minutes
Reflection Questions What similarities and differences do you see between your map and the map of 1914 Africa? How did this exercise help you and your group to understand the process of imperialism in Africa?
African Imperialism—A Review… How did the force of nationalism influence the process of imperialism in the late nineteenth century? What advantages did the Europeans have that enabled them to conquer the people of Africa? Explain the concept of Social Darwinism. What imperial motive did it pertain to? What was the Berlin Conference, and what long-term impact did it have on the African people?
Imperial Control Two basic methods of colonial management: indirect and direct Indirect control used by Britain and U.S. (in Pacific) Direct control used by French and other European powers Paternalism and assimilation (“association”)
Colonial Management Indirect ControlDirect Control Leadership Local government officials were used Foreign officials brought in to rule Self-Rule Limited self-rule No self-rule Goal Goal—to develop future leaders Goal—assimilation Governmental Style Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules Government institutions are based only on European styles ExamplesExamples: British colonies such as Nigeria, India, Burma U.S. colonies on Pacific Islands Examples: French colonies such as Somaliland, Vietnam German colonies such as Tanganyika Portuguese colonies such as Angola
African Resistance Africans resist colonial rule, despite lack of adequate organization and weapons Ethiopia successfully resists European dominance
Impact of Colonial Rule Positive EffectsNegative Effects
Impact of Colonial Rule Positive EffectsNegative Effects Reduced local warfare, raids between rival tribes Africans lost control of their land and their independence Improved sanitation, construction of schools and hospitals led to increased life spans and improved literacy rates Many died as a result of disease (smallpox), famine, and resistance Economic expansion, construction of railroads, dams, telephone / telegraph lines Breakdown of traditional African culture (loss of identity), division of African continent
White Man’s Burden “Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.” Which imperialist motive(s) do/does this poem excerpt reflect? How does it justify imperialism as a noble and necessary enterprise?
British Imperialism in India
British Control The East India Company seizes control of most of India (incredibly successful) Britain considers India its primary colony, serving as its main supplier of raw materials
“Jewel in the Crown” Raw materials 300 million people large potential market for British-made goods Restrictions set up that prevented Indian economy from operating on its own; India produced raw materials for British manufacturing, purchased British finished goods No competition between Indian and British goods
Indians Rebel Indians object to the racist attitudes of the British rulers The Sepoy Mutiny turns into widespread rebellion The British government takes direct control of India
Indian Nationalism Indians begin to demand a greater role in government, resenting a system that made them second- class citizens in their own country Nationalists form the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League Such groups were formed because they recognized the need to reform in order to resist European imperialism
Imperialism in China and Japan
Chinese Resistance China has little interest in trading with Western nations British import large amounts of tea from China and smuggle opium into the country Opium War / Treaty of Nanjing
Internal Problems Increase Poverty and political corruption create problems for China in the mid-1800s Taiping Rebellion Should China modernize or remain committed to traditional values?
Outside Influence Western nations and Japan gain spheres of influence in China U.S. promotes Open Door policy to assure trading rights for all nations and to protect China from colonization
Chinese Nationalism Boxer Rebellion Attack on foreigners After rebellion is crushed by foreign troops, Chinese government realizes change is necessary
Opium War and Boxer Rebellion What do they have in common? Resentment of foreigners contributed to both conflicts!
European Imperialism of China—A Review… Explain the significance of the following… Opium War Treaty of Nanjing Extraterritorial rights Taiping Rebellion Sphere of influence Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion
Japan Previously a very isolated society; no contact with industrialized world 1854—opens to trade, grants foreigners permission to trade at treaty ports, extends extraterritorial rights to such individuals Beginning of Meiji Era
Meiji Era Period of modernization and change (Last samurai) Adopt Western values in government, military structure, education, industrialization, etc. In what ways does the emperor appear more western in the picture?
Japanese Imperialism Defeats China in Sino-Japanese War Defeats Russia in Russo-Japanese War, claiming Manchuria and Korea What advantages did Japan have?
A Comparison/Contrast—China versus Japan Objective: Create a list of similarities and differences that breaks down how each country responded to the pressures of imperialism. Do so with a partner and submit when complete.