2 Imperialism Topics Africa India China Japan “Imperialism is a Glorious Pursuit”
3 DefinitionImperialism is a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or sociallyInvolves the takeover of a country or territory and its people (Risk in real life)
4 Motives—Why? Economic Political Religious Exploratory Ideological (Racism)
5 Key ThemesBetween , industrialized countries exploit overseas colonies for resources and markets.Western imperialists, with superior arms and technology, establish colonies in Asia and Africa; colonial rule, however, provokes native resistance and spurs feelings of nationalism.Countries in East Asia respond to Western imperialism in different ways; China initially resists foreign influence while Japan ends its isolation and begins to modernize like its Western counterparts.
6 Suez CanalOpened in 1869, it is a manmade waterway connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean SeaBuilt by the FrenchWhy might it be important to European imperialism in Africa?
10 Africa Before Imperialism Many ethnic groups but few Europeans rule in AfricaAfrican armies and traders kept Europeans out (equal technology, many people)Rivers were impassable, making it difficult to get inland
11 Competition Europeans learn about Africa from explorers (Muslims) Greed, nationalism, racism, and philanthropy (missionaries) motivate European colonialism
12 CompetitionA growing need for new markets and raw materials to improve their economiesSuperior arms (Maxim gun), the steam engine, medicines, and African rivalries help Europeans dominate Africa
13 Social DarwinismThe application of Charles Darwin’s ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societiesCreated by Herbert SpencerJustification for imperialist expansionPause here and have students complete Darwin reading analysis.
14 Social DarwinismSocieties with more wealth, power and technology were superior to those withoutEuropeans had a right and a duty (“burden”) to spread their values to others
15 Territorial ScrambleThe Berlin Conference (1884-5) divides Africa among European nationsThe division fails to take into account African ethnic and linguistic groupingsFocus only on wants of European Nations
16 Berlin Conference Simulation Read directions and identify the goals of your countriesNegotiate and discuss how best to divide the African continentSubmit map and answers to reflection questions upon completion of exerciseTime: ~ 45 minutes
17 Reflection QuestionsWhat similarities and differences do you see between your map and the map of 1914 Africa?How did this exercise help you and your group to understand the process of imperialism in Africa?
19 African Imperialism—A Review… How did the force of nationalism influence the process of imperialism in the late nineteenth century?What advantages did the Europeans have that enabled them to conquer the people of Africa?Explain the concept of Social Darwinism. What imperial motive did it pertain to?What was the Berlin Conference, and what long-term impact did it have on the African people?
20 Imperial ControlTwo basic methods of colonial management: indirect and directIndirect control used by Britain and U.S. (in Pacific)Direct control used by French and other European powersPaternalism and assimilation (“association”)Note: Discuss also the meanings of the terms colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, economic imperialism.
21 Colonial Management Indirect Control Direct Control Leadership Self-RuleGoalGovernmental StyleExamples
22 Colonial Management Indirect Control Direct Control Leadership Local government officials were usedForeign officials brought in to ruleSelf-RuleLimited self-ruleNo self-ruleGoalGoal—to develop future leadersGoal—assimilationGovernmental StyleGovernment institutions are based on European styles but may have local rulesGovernment institutions are based only on European stylesExamplesExamples:British colonies such as Nigeria, India, BurmaU.S. colonies on Pacific IslandsFrench colonies such as Somaliland, VietnamGerman colonies such as TanganyikaPortuguese colonies such as Angola
23 African Resistance Ethiopia successfully resists European dominance Africans resist colonial rule, despite lack of adequate organization and weaponsEthiopia successfully resists European dominance
24 Impact of Colonial Rule Positive EffectsNegative Effects
25 Impact of Colonial Rule Positive EffectsNegative EffectsReduced local warfare, raids between rival tribesAfricans lost control of their land and their independenceImproved sanitation, construction of schools and hospitals led to increased life spans and improved literacy ratesMany died as a result of disease (smallpox), famine, and resistanceEconomic expansion, construction of railroads, dams, telephone / telegraph linesBreakdown of traditional African culture (loss of identity), division of African continentNote: Artificial boundaries will plague Africa for years to come.
26 White Man’s Burden“Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.”Which imperialist motive(s) do/does this poem excerpt reflect? How does it justify imperialism as a noble and necessary enterprise?
28 British ControlThe East India Company seizes control of most of India (incredibly successful)Britain considers India its primary colony, serving as its main supplier of raw materials
29 “Jewel in the Crown” Raw materials 300 million people large potential market for British-made goodsRestrictions set up that prevented Indian economy from operating on its own; India produced raw materials for British manufacturing, purchased British finished goodsNo competition between Indian and British goods
30 Indians Rebel The Sepoy Mutiny turns into widespread rebellion Indians object to the racist attitudes of the British rulersThe Sepoy Mutiny turns into widespread rebellionThe British government takes direct control of India
33 Indian NationalismIndians begin to demand a greater role in government, resenting a system that made them second-class citizens in their own countryNationalists form the Indian National Congress and the Muslim LeagueSuch groups were formed because they recognized the need to reform in order to resist European imperialism
34 Imperialism in China and Japan Pictured, left to right: Queen Victoria of England, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, Marianne of France (the national emblem and personification of liberty and reason), and a Japanese samurai. A Mandarin official helplessly looks on in the background.
35 Chinese ResistanceChina has little interest in trading with Western nationsBritish import large amounts of tea from China and smuggle opium into the countryOpium War / Treaty of Nanjing
36 Internal Problems Increase Poverty and political corruption create problems for China in the mid-1800sTaiping RebellionShould China modernize or remain committed to traditional values?
37 Outside InfluenceWestern nations and Japan gain spheres of influence in ChinaU.S. promotes Open Door policy to assure trading rights for all nations and to protect China from colonization
38 Chinese Nationalism Boxer Rebellion Attack on foreigners After rebellion is crushed by foreign troops, Chinese government realizes change is necessary
39 What do they have in common? Opium War and Boxer RebellionWhat do they have in common?Resentment of foreigners contributed to both conflicts!
40 European Imperialism of China—A Review… Explain the significance of the following…Opium WarTreaty of NanjingExtraterritorial rightsTaiping RebellionSphere of influenceOpen Door PolicyBoxer Rebellion
41 JapanPreviously a very isolated society; no contact with industrialized world1854—opens to trade, grants foreigners permission to trade at treaty ports, extends extraterritorial rights to such individualsBeginning of Meiji Era
42 Meiji Era Period of modernization and change (Last samurai) Adopt Western values in government, military structure, education, industrialization, etc.In what ways does the emperor appear more western in the picture?
43 Japanese Imperialism Defeats China in Sino-Japanese War Defeats Russia in Russo-Japanese War, claiming Manchuria and KoreaWhat advantages did Japan have?
44 A Comparison/Contrast—China versus Japan Objective: Create a list of similarities and differences that breaks down how each country responded to the pressures of imperialism. Do so with a partner and submit when complete.