Presentation on theme: "19th Century Imperialism. What is Imperialism? The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political,"— Presentation transcript:
19th Century Imperialism
What is Imperialism? The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people of that nation.
Why Imperialism?? Economic reasons Sense of national pride- size mattered! Social justification
Economic Motivations With industrialization, Europeans needed new markets and raw materials to increase their profit margin.
Sense of National Pride Europeans viewed empire as a measure of national greatness. Competition for colonies amongst Europeans (and later the United States). Ability to project military power aboard increasingly became the role of navy.
Social Justification Social Darwinism- Herbert Spencer and others used Charles Darwin’s idea of Survival of the Fittest and applied it to race coming to the erroneous conclusion that some races (Europeans) are better than others.
White Man’s Burden Take up the White Man’s Burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captive’s need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.
White Man’s Burden Take up the White Man’s Burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest Te end for others sought, Watch Sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to naught. Rudyard Kilping, @1890’s
Christian Missionaries Missionaries wanted to “civilize” and “westernize” the peoples of Asia, Africa and the Pacific. Many tried in the process to end practices such as slavery and sati.
Where in the World?
How? Military Force Technological superiority Maxim Gun -world’s first automatic machine gun
How? Means to Control Empire Use of steam engine Trade
How? Cures for tropical diseases such as malaria (quinine) made interior exploration possible.
How? Took advantage of African rivalries and disunity. Over 75 ethnic groups and over 100 languages.
Resistance to Imperialism Eleven major uprisings against colonial powers including: Samori Toure - Mandinkan kingdom in west Africa(French west Africa) Maji Maji uprising in German East Africa (Tanzania) Ethiopia (Menelik II and the Battle of Adowa 1896.)
Resistance to Imperialism Defensive Modernization In places such as Ethiopia, Siam and Japan, nations decided to modernize and emulate the west before they were taken over.
Resistance to Imperialism “… The African is really helpless against the material goods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalistic exploitation, and militarism.” Edward Morel, a British journalist
Examples of Imperialism: Africa Scramble for Africa
Consequences of Imperialism Loss of political autonomy (control) Spread of disease Exploitation of land, resources and people Conversions of Christianity Roots of modern day conflicts (Rwanda, Middle East, Vietnam…)
Colonial Legacy Education Laws Language Architecture Sports
Rise of Western Dominance Economic, Political, Social, Cultural, & Artistic