ANCIENT EGYPT: Structural Conservatism & Material Extravagance
The Nile River Valley due to basic human needs for sustenance it is no surprise the Nile River Valley developed as it did: –water –fertilization –transportation –building materials –aesthetic inspiration
sepulchral structure built above ground elaboration of pre-dynastic burial-pit & mound form generally rectangular in plan with a flat roof and inward- sloping walls built of brick and faced with limestone slabs mastaba Old Kingdom (2680–2181 B.C.)
angle of repose—natural “structure” of earth when piled battered—or has a slope
Structural Conservatism Skiomorphosis - describes that process whereby a form is invented in one material as a response to the physical properties of that material and then transferred to another material whose properties do not demand that form.
Segregation of Classes Division of class –Royalty –Military –Laboring class –Merchant class Segregation of residential districts
INTERIORS Egyptian Pyramids –Eternal Egyptian Villas and Palaces –Absence of ceremony and its effect on the interior –Symbolic journey of life –Importance of the hearth –Movable furniture –Ephemeral
Model of a Villa of an aristocratic family at Te El Armana, 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom (reconstructed from archeological evidence)
Plan of a Villa of an aristocratic family at Te El Armana, 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom (reconstructed from archeological evidence) Walls were a canvas for carving or painted murals. Wooden shutters or grilles for windows. Sun-baked earthen floors cooler than having textiles.
Ivory hunting dog Late Dynasty 18, 1400-1350 B.C. Ivory, tinted red inside mouth and black around eyes and on undersides of paws, l. 7 1/8 in. Hippopotamus Thebes, area of Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 18, ca. 1450 B.C. Painting on limestone, 4 11/16 x 4 1/8 in.
Cat Ptolemaic Period, 305-30 B.C. Bronze, h. 11 in. Prancing Horse, New Kingdom, late Dynasty 18, probably reign of Amenhotep III, ca. 1391–1353 B.C. Egyptian Ivory, garnet inlay; L. 6 in. (15 cm)
Make-up Palettes in the form of Turtles, Old Kingdom
Pectoral of Princess Sithathoryunet Lahun Dynasty 12, reign of Senwosret II, ca. 1897-1797 BCE Gold, carnelian, feldspar, garnet, and turquoise; l. 3 1/4 in.
Egyptian Revivals The first occurs in the early 19 th century due to Napoleon’s campaigns in Egypt and the resulting Descriptions of Egypt. The second is concurrent with Carter’s discovery of King Tut’s Tomb in the early part of the 20 th century.
Clock, 1808, Benjamin Vulliamy Black Marble and Ormolu