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ANCIENT EGYPT: Structural Conservatism & Material Extravagance.

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Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT EGYPT: Structural Conservatism & Material Extravagance."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ANCIENT EGYPT: Structural Conservatism & Material Extravagance

3 The Nile River Valley due to basic human needs for sustenance it is no surprise the Nile River Valley developed as it did: –water –fertilization –transportation –building materials –aesthetic inspiration

4 sepulchral structure built above ground elaboration of pre-dynastic burial-pit & mound form generally rectangular in plan with a flat roof and inward- sloping walls built of brick and faced with limestone slabs mastaba Old Kingdom (2680–2181 B.C.)

5 angle of repose—natural “structure” of earth when piled battered—or has a slope

6 Pyramids of Giza

7 Structural Conservatism Skiomorphosis - describes that process whereby a form is invented in one material as a response to the physical properties of that material and then transferred to another material whose properties do not demand that form.

8 Segregation of Classes Division of class –Royalty –Military –Laboring class –Merchant class Segregation of residential districts

9 Temple Complex at Karnac

10 Trabeated Construction Post: Vertical Element Lintel: Horizontal Element Battered Wall

11 Temple of Edfu: The Main Pylon/Gate Cavetto Cornice

12 Obelisk

13 Temple of Amon at Karnac Path or Axis

14 Temple of Amon at Karnac Axial Planning Additive Construction

15 Hypostyle Hall: Nature’s Grid NILE SUN

16 Hypostyle Hall Latin: hypo-inside, style-column Clerestory Lotus Flower Capital

17 hierarchy of society (statues and restricted spaces) fused in architecture

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19 The Dense Forest

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21 Applied Polychromy

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23 Bas (Low) Relief CarvingIncised Carving HIEROGLYPHICS

24 Arab World Institute Jean Nouvel, Paris France, Notre Dame

25 Light Sensitive Windows

26 Jean Nouvel’s Hypostyle Hall

27 Interior of Nouvel’s Hypostyle

28 Interior of Arab World Institute

29 INTERIORS Egyptian Pyramids –Eternal Egyptian Villas and Palaces –Absence of ceremony and its effect on the interior –Symbolic journey of life –Importance of the hearth –Movable furniture –Ephemeral

30 Model of a Villa of an aristocratic family at Te El Armana, 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom (reconstructed from archeological evidence)

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33 Plan of a Villa of an aristocratic family at Te El Armana, 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom (reconstructed from archeological evidence) Walls were a canvas for carving or painted murals. Wooden shutters or grilles for windows. Sun-baked earthen floors cooler than having textiles.

34 Egyptian Furniture

35 Products of the Vernacular Products for ordinary people Local materials Priority of function

36 Products of the High Style Products for the elite Extravagant materials Followed them to the afterlife Alabaster Lamp

37 table and oil lamps, Old Kingdom Wrapped Joints Diagonal Struts

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39 Wood Joinery

40 Bedroom Suite of Queen Hetepheres, c BCE Wood encased in gold; loose cushions covered in cotton, painted leather, metallic cloth

41 Folding Bed, Middle Kingdom

42 Headrest from the tomb of Tutankhamun, c Often wrapped in linen

43 Impost Block Zoomorphic furniture Lotus Blossom Reeds

44 The Discovery of King Tut’s Tomb by Howard Carter (1922)

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46 The Antechamber (Evidence of trade; Greek artifacts found in tombs)

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48 Burial Chamber Entrance

49 An Unbroken Seal

50 The Primary Sarcophagus of King Tutankhamen

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53 Stool from the tomb of Tutankhamun, c BCE

54 Seating –Stool Painted and Guilded Stool, 18th dynasty

55 Seating –Stool –Chair

56 Seating –Stool –Chair –Arm chair Arm Chair from the tomb of Tutankhamun, c BCE

57 Seating –Stool –Chair –Arm chair –Throne

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59 1.Loose cushion 2.Pads or rolls of fabric secured over the back and seat of chair 3.Leather (cowhide or goat skin) as collapsible sling Use of textiles on furnishings:

60 Shrine Shaped Box, Old Kingdom

61 Chest on Legs, Old Kingdom

62 Egyptian Decorative Arts

63 Ivory hunting dog Late Dynasty 18, B.C. Ivory, tinted red inside mouth and black around eyes and on undersides of paws, l. 7 1/8 in. Hippopotamus Thebes, area of Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 18, ca B.C. Painting on limestone, 4 11/16 x 4 1/8 in.

64 Cat Ptolemaic Period, B.C. Bronze, h. 11 in. Prancing Horse, New Kingdom, late Dynasty 18, probably reign of Amenhotep III, ca. 1391–1353 B.C. Egyptian Ivory, garnet inlay; L. 6 in. (15 cm)

65 Make-up Palettes in the form of Turtles, Old Kingdom

66 Pectoral of Princess Sithathoryunet Lahun Dynasty 12, reign of Senwosret II, ca BCE Gold, carnelian, feldspar, garnet, and turquoise; l. 3 1/4 in.

67 Egyptian Revivals The first occurs in the early 19 th century due to Napoleon’s campaigns in Egypt and the resulting Descriptions of Egypt. The second is concurrent with Carter’s discovery of King Tut’s Tomb in the early part of the 20 th century.

68 Clock, 1808, Benjamin Vulliamy Black Marble and Ormolu

69 Grauman’s Egyptian Theater

70 Egyptian Theater Boise, Idaho


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