Presentation on theme: "Ancient Africa - Nile River Culture and the Pyramids."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Africa - Nile River Culture and the Pyramids
I. Cultural and environmental determinants of Egyptian architecture A. Characteristics of Egyptian politics, climate, religion, and landscape (compared to Mesopotamia) The Middle East with Egypt and the Red Sea 1.
I. A.... religion Mudbrick royal tomb at Ur Great Pyramids at Giza King’s burial in MesopotamiaKing’s burial in ancient Egypt
I. A. 1. Landscape+Architecture Pay special attention to Egypt’s innovations in landscape/architecture relationship Egypt – Nile River Valley Nile River, Egypt 2.
I. B. The world’s earliest stone architecture Nile River in Upper Egypt
I. B. 2. What was the cultural significance of stone in Egyptian architecture? I. B. 1. Which buildings were constructed in stone? The “Bent” Pyrmaid, Dahshur, Egypt, ca. 2600 BC Temple of Re at Heliopolis Town of El-Kahun Royal palace at Tell Amarna mudbrickstone
I. C. Vernacular building traditions and the look of Egyptian stone architecture. 1. battered walls ¾ round molding gorge cornice mudbrick house in Yemen today ancient Egyptian model of a tall house
I. C.1. Does Egyptian architectural form derive from symbolism or techtonics? model of an Egyptian hut shrine formmaterial ≠
Old KingdomMiddle KingdomNew Kingdom King Zoser’s Mortuary Complex Great Pyramids, Giza (mortuary complex) Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut Temple of Amon, Luxor 2600 BC 2500 BC 2030 BC 1550 BC 1400 BC
II. Egyptian funerary architecture: transforming the space of fear and death
II. Zoser’s Pyramid & Mortuary Complex, Saqqara, Egypt, c. 2680 B.C. 4. King Zoser (r. 2687-2668 BC )
Ka – a vital force emanating from the god to his son the king Statue of Zoser in the serdab Zoser’s Mortuary Complex II. A. Religious context: What is the king’s relationship with the sun god (Re) in life and death?
II. A. 1. What was orientation of Zoser’s Mortuary Complex? Zoser’s Mortuary Complex
II. B. Landscape: King Zoser’s Mortuary Complex as funerary architecture Zoser’s Mortuary Complex 3. II. B. 1. Why were geographical and architectural realities represented symbolically in the complex as an eternal landscape of Egypt?
II. A. Zoser’s Step Pyramid mastaba Mastaba of Queen Herneith, Saqqara, 1 st Dynasty (3100-2890 BC)
II. C. Major parts of the complex and the vernacular origins of their architecture: 1. What vernacular materials were transformed into stone? Step Pyramid of ZoserGiza (Chephren’s Pyramid)
II. C. 2. colonnaded entrance hall Step Pyramid of Zoser bundled reed column
Zoser’s Mortuary Complex clerestorey illuminates the interior II. C. 2.
II. C. 3. Heb-Sed Court with sham temples Zoser’s Mortuary Complex – Heb-Sed Court reconstructed sham temples on Heb-Sed Court
II. C. 3. Heb-Sed Court with sham temples curved hoops of matting bundled reed columns imitation wood fence Zoser’s Mortuary Complex
II. C. 3. a. Heb-Sed Court with sham temples reed columns w/ saddle capitals Zoser’s Mortuary Complex
II. C. 4. North and South sham palaces – symbolic, not practical, use of plant forms chapel next to north sham palace Zoser’s Mortuary Complex
II. C. 4. North and South sham palaces - symbolic, not practical, use of plant forms in building north sham palace - papyrus columns Zoser’s Mortuary Complex south sham palace - lotus columns
II. D. Theory: Who or what is the source of the architectural ideas that brought Zoser’s Mortuary Complex to fruition? Imhotep’s list of titles: Chancellor of the King of Egypt, Doctor, First in line after the King of Upper Egypt, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary nobleman, High Priest of Heliopolis, Builder, Chief Carpenter, Chief Sculptor and Maker of Vases in Chief. hieroglyphic signature of Imhotep in Zoser’s pyramid II. D. 1. What does the hieroglyphic signature of architect Imhotep tell us about the status of architects ?
III. Great Pyramids at Giza: An Abrupt Change in Site Design Great Pyramids at Giza, Egypt, 2570-2500 B.C. 6.
III. A. Site Design: What is unprecedented in Egyptian culture in the relationship between architecture and landscape at Giza? Great Pyramids at Giza
III. A. 1. What is an explanation for the bond to landscape in terms of ritual? Great Pyramids at Giza
III. A. 2. The tripartite sequence of elements in the landscape-embracing design valley temple causeway mortuary temple Great Pyramids at Giza
III. A. 2. a. valley temple (and sphinx) Great Pyramids at Giza (Chephren’s Valley Temple)
III. A. 2. b. mortuary temple Great Pyramids at Giza (Chephren’s Mortuary Temple)
III. A. 2. c. pyramid (tomb) Great Pyramids at Giza (Chephren’s Pyramid in foreground)
III. A. 2. c. pyramid (tomb) Giza (Cheops’s Pyramid) Saqqara (Zoser’s step pyramid)
abstract, pure geometrical forms Giza (Chephren’s Valley Temple) 1. What forms replaced references to natural forms and vernacular architecture at Giza? Zoser’s Mortuary Complex representational forms III. C. Aesthetic revolution: a new architectural language at Giza non-referential
III. C. 1. GizaZoser’s Step Pyramid at Saqqara non-referential forms = timeless = radical break with past 7. or 3.