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Ancient Egypt & Kush (Nubia). Archaic Period Menes (Narmer) –united upper and lower Egypt –Egypt’s first Pharaoh “Great House” –started Egypt’s first.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egypt & Kush (Nubia). Archaic Period Menes (Narmer) –united upper and lower Egypt –Egypt’s first Pharaoh “Great House” –started Egypt’s first."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Egypt & Kush (Nubia)

2 Archaic Period Menes (Narmer) –united upper and lower Egypt –Egypt’s first Pharaoh “Great House” –started Egypt’s first Dynasty

3 The Old Kingdom 2686 – 2181 BC

4 Pyramid Builders Pyramids –tombs; Old Kingdom Engineering –the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes … uh … what? –ex. using a 43.5° angle for the pyramids to avoid collapse

5 Pyramid Builders Imhotep –master architect Djoser –Step Pyramid Snefru –Red Pyramid (true pyramid) Khufu (Cheops) –Great Pyramid of Giza

6 Mummification Afterlife –life after death; focus of Egyptian Religion Mummies –help the “ka” find it’s body Ka –life spirit

7 Mummification Sarcophagus –bone box; decorated coffin Canopic Jars –held internal organs of mummy

8 Gods and Goddesses Re (Rah or Amen-Re) –sun god Anubis –god of the dead and mummification; jackal headed

9 Gods and Goddesses Osiris –god of the underworld Isis –goddess of magic Horus –sky god; god of the pharaohs

10 The Middle Kingdom 1991 – 1786 BC

11 Middle Kingdom “Renaissance” –“rebirth” of Egypt –classical period of art and literature –Egypt conquers Kush and gains wealth

12 Middle Kingdom Hyksos –invaders from Southwest Asia –chariots and high-powered bows Ahmose –defeated the Hyksos –started the New Kingdom

13 The New Kingdom 1567 – 1085 BC

14 New Kingdom Queen Hatshepsut –mother of Thutmose III –ran things; expaned trade –wore a beard !!! Thutmose III (Tutmosis) –killed his mom ??? –great conqueror

15 New Kingdom Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) –monotheism; worshipped Aton “the sun disc” Tutankhamen (Tutankhaton) –restored old religion –buried in the Valley of the Kings –tomb found in 1922 by Howard Carter

16 New Kingdom Ramses the Great –ruled for 67 years, 100 children –great builder of temples –defeated the Sea People

17 Egyptian Life and Culture Agriculture –80% of Egyptians were poor farmers

18 Writing Hieroglyphics –Egyptian writing system, one of the world’s first, used symbols

19 Papyrus –long-lasting, paper-like substance made from reeds Rosetta Stone –a stone slab discovered in 1799 that was inscribed with hieroglyphics and their Greek meanings; best archaeological source for translation of glyphs Writing

20 Architecture Pyramids –Old Kingdom tombs –Egypt’s most recognized symbol

21 Architecture Temples –Dedicated to gods and pharaohs

22 Sphinx –head of a person and the body of a lion –largest single-stone statue ever Obelisk –a tall, four-sided pillar that is pointed on top –like the Washington monument Architecture

23 Art Tomb Paintings –Murals

24 Art Carvings –“reliefs”

25 Art Jewelry & Decorations

26 Nubian / Kushite Period Nubians (Kushites) –Nubia conquered Egypt, then Egypt conquered Nubia –known for their gold and jewelry Trade Network –system of people in different lands who trade goods back and forth Exports –goods sent for sale in other countries or regions Imports –goods brought in from other countries or regions

27 Greek (Ptolemaic) Period Alexander the Great –conquered Egypt and becomes pharaoh; built the Lighthouse at Pharos and the Library of Alexandria Ptolemy –one of Alexander’s generals, he was put in charge of Egypt as Alexander moved on to other conquests

28 Roman Conquest Cleopatra –Greek; descended from Ptolemy –committed suicide rather than be taken prisoner by Roman general Octavian (later known as Augustus Caesar) –she was Egypt’s last pharaoh and Egypt became Roman province

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