+ Trojan War Tell me about it… Who was involved? Why were they fighting? What is the most notable part of the story?
+ Trojan War 1200s BCE Mycenaeans against the city of Troy – 10 years According to legend, a Trojan Prince captured Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek King (Spartan). More legend than fact (written about in both the Illiad and the Odyssey
+ WRITE THIS! BOX 1 WRITE: TROJAN WAR 1200 BCE Mycenaeans vs Troy Mycenaeans (Greeks) won
+ Persian Wars Persian Army’s attempt to take over Greek city-states – greatest threat to Greece New type of warfare – iron replaced bronze – much cheaper and enabled ordinary people to join the military Phalanx – most effective military formation
+ Phalanx was generally 8-16 across/deep, but could be as large as 32 Each man carried a pike, a spear 10-25 feet long What are the benefits of this formation?
+ Persian Wars – Battle of Marathon Persian Wars began in Ionia – Persian Army was successful Greeks regrouped and the Ionians got support from Athens, together, they were able to defeat a much larger Persian Army (Persia now HATES Athens) Pheidippides was a runner who was selected to bring the news back to Athens that the Greeks had won. He ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens – delivered the news, then died. Hence, the modern marathon
+ Persian Wars – Battle of Thermopylae Ten years after the Persian defeat at Marathon, Xerxes wanted revenge and to destroy Athens Xerxes and his impressive army were matching towards Athens when they ran into a a Greek army of about 7000 blocking the narrow pass Persian advance stopped almost entirely for three days and they suffered heavy losses Persians caught a break when an ugly, disfigured traitor told them of an alternate route to bypass Thermopylae King Leonidas ordered the rest of the Greeks to retreat and kept 700 Thespians and 300 Spartans to defend the pass/delay Persian advance Persians made it to Athens and burned the city to the ground
+ Persian Wars – Battle of Salamis Immediately after Thermopylae Athenian soldiers who fled the imminent danger of Thermopylae positioned their navy in a small channel near the island of Salamis After Xerxes burned Athens, he headed to the sea and ran into the Athenian fleet Xerxes ships were too big to turn around in the narrow pass and the small Greek ships were able to sink 1/3 of Xerxes’ fleet Outcome of the Persian Wars – Greeks formed the Delian League (an alliance), to continue to defend against Persian advances, eventually, they drove the Persians out of Greece. This enabled the Greeks to become very powerful – Athens was the leader of Greece.
+ BOX 2 WRITE THIS Persian Wars 546-479 BCE Persia vs Greek City-States
+ BOX 2a WRITE THIS Battle of Marathon – 26.2 mile run
+ BOX 2b WRITE THIS Battle of Thermopylae – Inspiration for 300
+ BOX 2c WRITE THIS Battle of Salamis – Athens became powerhouse
+ Peloponnesian War Athens grew in wealth, power and prestige leaving the other city states bitter, especially Sparta. Tensions between the two city states continued to grow and neither city state tried to avoid conflict Eventually, Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 BCE
+ After your comparison fan fold between Athens and Sparta, who do you think won?
+ Peloponnesian War Athens had a stronger navy, Sparta a stronger army Geographic location of Sparta protected against Athens’ navy The two city states fought back and forth, eventually, the victory went to Sparta and Athens lost its position as the most powerful city state However, Sparta didn’t last too long either
+ BOX 3 WRITE THIS Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCE Athens vs Sparta (Greek Civil War) Sparta victorious - Athens fades away (Golden Age of Greece dwindles)