Presentation on theme: "Persia Attacks the Greeks Chapter 4 Section 3. The Persian Empire Persians were warriors and nomads who lived in Persia, the southwestern area of what."— Presentation transcript:
The Persian Empire Persians were warriors and nomads who lived in Persia, the southwestern area of what is now Iran Cyrus the Great united the Persians. The Persians built a large empire, conquering Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan and Phoenician cities.
What Was Persian Government Like? Darius came to power in 521 B.C. and reorganized the government. He divided the empire into 20 states or satrapies Each was ruled by a satrap or “protector of the kingdom” Tax collector, judge, chief of police and head recruiter for the army King's power depended on his troops. Army was comprised of professional troops 10,000 were “The Immortals” Guarded the king and were immediately replaced when killed
The Persian Religion Zoroastrianism, the religion of the Persians, was founded by Zoroaster. He believed in a supreme ruler who was responsible for the creation of everything Believed that there was good and evil and humans had freedom to choose between the two Believed that goodness in the end would prevail
The Persian Wars Control over colonies in Asia Minor Greeks set up colonies in Med Sea area which were being taken over by the Persians
The Persian Wars Greek colonies who had fallen under the power of the Persians rebelled and asked for help from Athens. Darius decided to stop Greeks interference in Persian empire building.
Battle of Marathon 490 B.C. 20,000 Persian troops advance to the plain of Marathon Persians wait for Athenians to attack Doesn't happen Persian plan Sail and attack Athens directly Cavalry load onto ships Foot soldiers standing in water waiting to board Greeks attack, Persians unable to defend themselves were easily defeated
“Nike” Pheidippides Messenger sent to Athens to relay the news of the victory Raced 26 miles to Athens Collapsed with exhaustion and with last breath said, “Nike” meaning victory Marathons named after this famous run After Darius' death...his son Xerxes becomes king and vows revenge on Greece. Plan: Invade Greece with 180,000 troops and thousands of warships and suppy ships.
Battle of Thermopylae Spartans lead by Leonidas Themistocles lead Athenians Plan was to attack Persian fleets and cut off supplies to army on land Block the Persians at Thermopylae, a mountain pass that was easy to defend Betrayed by traitor Leonidas and his troops fought to the death, which gives Athens time to assemble 200 ships and meet the Persians at Salamis
Battle at Salamis Greeks attack at the strait of Salamis. The Greeks smaller, faster ships would easily destroy the Persian fleet. Persians marched on to Athens and destroyed it.
Battle at Plataea In 479 B.C., the Greeks united Largest Greek army ever assembled Better trained, body armor and long spears Battle was a turning point Persians retreated to Asia Minor Unification was the key to victoy
Persia became vulnerable to attack. Alexander the Great brought the Persian Empire under his control. What Caused the Persian Empire to Fall? Several factors led to the fall of the empire Greedy leaders Taxed people to gain more wealth that was spent on luxuries for the royal court Many sons with little power constantly were fighting for control So many were killed for power