Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pan-Hellenism and Relations between States February 8 th, 2012.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Pan-Hellenism and Relations between States February 8 th, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pan-Hellenism and Relations between States February 8 th, 2012

2 General Remarks Polis system divided Greece politically. Polis system divided Greece politically. Greece divided along linguistic/ethnic lines (i.e. Aiolians, Dorians, Ionians). Greece divided along linguistic/ethnic lines (i.e. Aiolians, Dorians, Ionians). An agonal culture. An agonal culture. Unity rare. Unity rare.

3 Review: Pan-Hellenic Institutions in Archaic Greece The Oracle at Delphi. The Oracle at Delphi. The Olympic Games. The Olympic Games. Colonization. Colonization. The Persian Wars. The Persian Wars. Pan-Hellenism overstated; Athenian and Spartan propaganda first disseminated by Herodotus (ca. 430 BCE). Pan-Hellenism overstated; Athenian and Spartan propaganda first disseminated by Herodotus (ca. 430 BCE).

4 Herodotus of Halicarnassus (ca BCE) B. at Halicarnassus (South-Western Turkey) ca. 485 BCE B. at Halicarnassus (South-Western Turkey) ca. 485 BCE Considered to be the first historian Considered to be the first historian Wrote The Histories in ca. 430 BCE Wrote The Histories in ca. 430 BCE The Histories = an account of the Persian Wars (490 BCE; BCE) The Histories = an account of the Persian Wars (490 BCE; BCE) Problems? Problems?

5 Life of Herodotus Halicarnassus = a multi-cultural town in the 5 th century BCE (i.e. Greek, Carian, Persian intermarriage) Halicarnassus = a multi-cultural town in the 5 th century BCE (i.e. Greek, Carian, Persian intermarriage) Herodotus’ family exiled during Persian Wars – Lived on Samos until a young man. Herodotus’ family exiled during Persian Wars – Lived on Samos until a young man. Traveled extensively through Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East (esp. Egypt). Traveled extensively through Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East (esp. Egypt). Recited his writings to audiences throughout the Greek-speaking world including Athens. Recited his writings to audiences throughout the Greek-speaking world including Athens. Probably stitched together disparate writings to form The Histories. Probably stitched together disparate writings to form The Histories. Joined an Athenian colonization expedition to Thurii (Southern Italy). Joined an Athenian colonization expedition to Thurii (Southern Italy). Probably died in Thurii in or shortly after 425 BCE. Probably died in Thurii in or shortly after 425 BCE.

6 The Histories Charts the causes and course of events for the Persian Wars. Charts the causes and course of events for the Persian Wars. Comprises a total of 9 books (artificial division imposed by later scholars). Comprises a total of 9 books (artificial division imposed by later scholars). Amalgamation of myth, folklore, empirical fact, new forms of learning/knowledge. Amalgamation of myth, folklore, empirical fact, new forms of learning/knowledge. Seminal text in the development of Pan-Hellenic ideals. Seminal text in the development of Pan-Hellenic ideals.

7 Herodotus’ Objectives To instruct his audience. To instruct his audience. To entertain his audience. To entertain his audience. To commemorate the Persian Wars. To commemorate the Persian Wars. Problems? Problems?

8 Problems With Herodotean Method Historians must rely on Herodotus for much of the Archaic period. Historians must rely on Herodotus for much of the Archaic period. Crucial to be aware of his quirks. Crucial to be aware of his quirks. Was not present. Was not present. Frequently narrates events for which he has no direct evidence (i.e. events in the distant past; events in distant places). Frequently narrates events for which he has no direct evidence (i.e. events in the distant past; events in distant places). Concerned with oracles and religious matters. Concerned with oracles and religious matters. Speeches and private conversations. Speeches and private conversations. Unreliable on figures (i.e. 1,700,000 Persian soldiers in 480/79 BCE!). Unreliable on figures (i.e. 1,700,000 Persian soldiers in 480/79 BCE!).

9 Herodotus’ Sources Reports from Greek eye-witnesses. Reports from Greek eye-witnesses. Reports from Persian and other non-Greek eye- witnesses. Reports from Persian and other non-Greek eye- witnesses. Inscriptions, trophies, monuments. Inscriptions, trophies, monuments. Local histories. Local histories. Legends. Legends.

10 The Expansion of Persia Cyrus the Great, became ruler of the Persians in 557 BCE Cyrus the Great, became ruler of the Persians in 557 BCE 550 BCE – Cyrus overthrows Astayages, king of the Medes 550 BCE – Cyrus overthrows Astayages, king of the Medes 549 BCE – Unites Persians and Medes into one kingdom – forges a multicultural empire 549 BCE – Unites Persians and Medes into one kingdom – forges a multicultural empire 546 BCE – Cyrus captures Lydia 546 BCE – Cyrus captures Lydia 540 BCE – Captured all mainland Greek cities of Asia Minor 540 BCE – Captured all mainland Greek cities of Asia Minor 538 BCE – Cyrus captures Babylon 538 BCE – Cyrus captures Babylon 529 BCE – Cyrus dies and is succeeded by his son Cambyses II 529 BCE – Cyrus dies and is succeeded by his son Cambyses II Cambyses rules Persian Empire until 522 BCE – Conquers Egypt in 525 BCE Cambyses rules Persian Empire until 522 BCE – Conquers Egypt in 525 BCE Succeeded by Darius I (522 BCE – 486 BCE) Succeeded by Darius I (522 BCE – 486 BCE) Darius adds Thrace and Macedon to Persian control Darius adds Thrace and Macedon to Persian control

11 The Persian Empire (ca. 490 BCE)

12 Two Phases of the Persian Wars 490 BCE – Darius I. 490 BCE – Darius I. 480/79 BCE – Xerxes. 480/79 BCE – Xerxes. Both ended in Persian defeat. Both ended in Persian defeat.

13 What were the primary causes of the Persian Wars?

14 Events Leading to Hostilities 510 BCE – Expulsion of Hippias, tyrant of Athens (Indirectly) 510 BCE – Expulsion of Hippias, tyrant of Athens (Indirectly) 500 BCE – The Revolt of Aristagoras of Miletus (Herodotus, ) (Indirectly) 500 BCE – The Revolt of Aristagoras of Miletus (Herodotus, ) (Indirectly) 499 BCE – The Ionian Revolt (Directly) 499 BCE – The Ionian Revolt (Directly) 498 BCE – The Burning of Sardis (Directly) 498 BCE – The Burning of Sardis (Directly) Darius seeks revenge Darius seeks revenge

15 The Revolt of Aristagoras of Miletus (500 BCE) Stasis on Naxos – Aristagoras of Miletus asked for help Stasis on Naxos – Aristagoras of Miletus asked for help Miletus under Persian hegemony Miletus under Persian hegemony Aristagoras agreed, hoping to become tyrant of Naxos Aristagoras agreed, hoping to become tyrant of Naxos Intrigued with the Persian satrap, Artaphernes – offers all the Cyclades to the Persians Intrigued with the Persian satrap, Artaphernes – offers all the Cyclades to the Persians The campaign failed – Aristagoras could not fulfill his promise The campaign failed – Aristagoras could not fulfill his promise Aristagoras resolved on revolt from Persian control Aristagoras resolved on revolt from Persian control

16 Aristagoras of Miletus So Aristagoras was unable to keep his promise to Artaphrenes; he was at the same time in difficulties because of the demand for the cost of the army, and afraid because of the failure of the expedition and his quarrel with its commander, and apprehensive of losing his position in Miletos. With all these worries, he began to plot revolt….” (Herodotus, Trans. M. Crawford & D. Whitehead, Doc. 102). So Aristagoras was unable to keep his promise to Artaphrenes; he was at the same time in difficulties because of the demand for the cost of the army, and afraid because of the failure of the expedition and his quarrel with its commander, and apprehensive of losing his position in Miletos. With all these worries, he began to plot revolt….” (Herodotus, Trans. M. Crawford & D. Whitehead, Doc. 102).

17 The Results of Aristagoras’ Efforts Aristagoras rejected in Sparta. Aristagoras rejected in Sparta. Help promised by Athens and Eretria (Athens feared a return of Hippias). Help promised by Athens and Eretria (Athens feared a return of Hippias). 499 BCE: Ionian Greeks revolt – Sardis burned. 499 BCE: Ionian Greeks revolt – Sardis burned. 499 – 494 BCE – Darius crushes the Ionian revolt. 499 – 494 BCE – Darius crushes the Ionian revolt. 490 BCE – Darius sends an army by sea to seek revenge on Athens and restore Hippias. 490 BCE – Darius sends an army by sea to seek revenge on Athens and restore Hippias.

18 The Persians Advance “It was the beginning of spring that the King dismissed his other strategoi and Mardonios the son of Gobryes came down to the sea, bringing with him a large force….Mardonios arrived in Ionia and there something remarkable happened, at least I think so….for Mardonios put down all the tyrants of the Ionians and established democracies in the poleis….Having done this he hastened on to the Hellespontos. And as soon as a large fleet and a large force of infantry had been assembled, they crossed the Hellespontos in the ships and began to march through Europe, heading for Eretria and Athens. These places at any rate were the pretext for the expedition, but it was in their minds to subdue as many as possible of the Greek poleis; so with the fleet they took Thasos, without meeting any resistance, and with the army they added the Makedonians to the subjects they already had; for all the people up to the Makedonians had already come under their sway….After this Dareios attempted to find out what was in the minds of the Greeks, whether they would go to war with him or surrender. So he sent heralds hither and thither throughout Greece, bidding them ask for earth and water for the King. At the same time as he sent these men to Greece he sent others to the poleis by the sea which paid tribute to him, bidding them prepare warships and horse transports. While they were in the process of making these preparations, the heralds were in Greece; many of the mainlanders gave what the Persians demanded and all the islanders whom they visited with their request, including the Aiginetans.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 107) “It was the beginning of spring that the King dismissed his other strategoi and Mardonios the son of Gobryes came down to the sea, bringing with him a large force….Mardonios arrived in Ionia and there something remarkable happened, at least I think so….for Mardonios put down all the tyrants of the Ionians and established democracies in the poleis….Having done this he hastened on to the Hellespontos. And as soon as a large fleet and a large force of infantry had been assembled, they crossed the Hellespontos in the ships and began to march through Europe, heading for Eretria and Athens. These places at any rate were the pretext for the expedition, but it was in their minds to subdue as many as possible of the Greek poleis; so with the fleet they took Thasos, without meeting any resistance, and with the army they added the Makedonians to the subjects they already had; for all the people up to the Makedonians had already come under their sway….After this Dareios attempted to find out what was in the minds of the Greeks, whether they would go to war with him or surrender. So he sent heralds hither and thither throughout Greece, bidding them ask for earth and water for the King. At the same time as he sent these men to Greece he sent others to the poleis by the sea which paid tribute to him, bidding them prepare warships and horse transports. While they were in the process of making these preparations, the heralds were in Greece; many of the mainlanders gave what the Persians demanded and all the islanders whom they visited with their request, including the Aiginetans.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 107)

19 Anxiety for Athens “The Athenians and the Aiginetans were thus at war with each other; meanwhile the King of Persia was at work. His servants regularly reminded Dareios ‘Remember the Athenians’, and the Peisistratids were at hand to traduce them; at the same time Dareios wished to take advantage of this pretext to subdue those peoples in Greece who had not given him earth and water.” (Herodotus, Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108). “The Athenians and the Aiginetans were thus at war with each other; meanwhile the King of Persia was at work. His servants regularly reminded Dareios ‘Remember the Athenians’, and the Peisistratids were at hand to traduce them; at the same time Dareios wished to take advantage of this pretext to subdue those peoples in Greece who had not given him earth and water.” (Herodotus, Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108).

20 The Major Battles of the Persian Wars Marathon (1st Campaign). Marathon (1st Campaign). Artemisium (2 nd Campaign). Artemisium (2 nd Campaign). Thermopylae (2 nd Campaign). Thermopylae (2 nd Campaign). Salamis (2 nd Campaign). Salamis (2 nd Campaign). Platea (2 nd Campaign). Platea (2 nd Campaign). Mykale and Sestos (2 nd Campaign). Mykale and Sestos (2 nd Campaign).

21 The Battle of Marathon (490 BCE)

22 The Landing at Marathon (490 BCE) and the Stakes for Democratic Athens “Led by Hippias the son of Peisistratos, the expedition landed at Marathon. As soon as the Athenians heard this, they too set off for Marathon to oppose the Persians, commanded by the ten strategoi; one of the ten was Miltiades….A message to Sparta brought a promise of help after the full moon; meanwhile the Athenians at Marathon were joined by the Plataians.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108). “Led by Hippias the son of Peisistratos, the expedition landed at Marathon. As soon as the Athenians heard this, they too set off for Marathon to oppose the Persians, commanded by the ten strategoi; one of the ten was Miltiades….A message to Sparta brought a promise of help after the full moon; meanwhile the Athenians at Marathon were joined by the Plataians.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108).

23 The Strategy at Marathon “Now as they marshaled their army on the field at Marathon, in order that the Athenian front might be of equal length with the Persian, the ranks of the center were diminished, and it became the weakest part of the line, while the wings were both made strong with a depth of many ranks….The two armies fought together on the plain of Marathon for a long time, and in the middle of the battle, where the Persians themselves and the Sacae had their place, the barbarians were victorious, and broke and pursued the Greeks into the inner country. On the two wings, however, the Athenians and the Plataeans defeated the enemy. Having done so, they allowed the routed barbarians to flee, joined their two wings into one and fell on those who had broken their own center, and defeated them.” (Herodotus, Histories Nagle & Burstein, pp.80-1) “Now as they marshaled their army on the field at Marathon, in order that the Athenian front might be of equal length with the Persian, the ranks of the center were diminished, and it became the weakest part of the line, while the wings were both made strong with a depth of many ranks….The two armies fought together on the plain of Marathon for a long time, and in the middle of the battle, where the Persians themselves and the Sacae had their place, the barbarians were victorious, and broke and pursued the Greeks into the inner country. On the two wings, however, the Athenians and the Plataeans defeated the enemy. Having done so, they allowed the routed barbarians to flee, joined their two wings into one and fell on those who had broken their own center, and defeated them.” (Herodotus, Histories Nagle & Burstein, pp.80-1) In the battle at Marathon about 6,400 of the barbaroi were killed and 192 of the Athenians.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108). In the battle at Marathon about 6,400 of the barbaroi were killed and 192 of the Athenians.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108).

24 The Athenian Strategy at Marathon

25 Events After the Battle at Marathon “After the Athenian and Plataian victory, the Persian force boarded the ships and sailed around Cape Sounion, aiming to arrive at the city (astu) before the Athenians; among the Athenians, the Alkmaionidai were blamed for a plot which suggested this plan to them; they were believed to have come to an agreement with the Persians and to have raised a shield (as a signal) when they were again aboard ship. Anyway, they sailed around Cape Sounion; but the Athenians came to the rescue of the city (astu) as fast as they could and got there before the barbaroi arrived.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108). “After the Athenian and Plataian victory, the Persian force boarded the ships and sailed around Cape Sounion, aiming to arrive at the city (astu) before the Athenians; among the Athenians, the Alkmaionidai were blamed for a plot which suggested this plan to them; they were believed to have come to an agreement with the Persians and to have raised a shield (as a signal) when they were again aboard ship. Anyway, they sailed around Cape Sounion; but the Athenians came to the rescue of the city (astu) as fast as they could and got there before the barbaroi arrived.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 108).

26 Preparations for a Renewed Offensive Darius returns to Persia; immediately prepares for a new invasion ( BCE). Darius returns to Persia; immediately prepares for a new invasion ( BCE). 486 BCE – Egypt revolts from Persian control. 486 BCE – Egypt revolts from Persian control. 485 BCE – Death of Darius; succeeded by son, Xerxes. 485 BCE – Death of Darius; succeeded by son, Xerxes BCE - Xerxes continues preparations; sends out heralds to demand earth and water BCE - Xerxes continues preparations; sends out heralds to demand earth and water. 481 BCE – The congress at Corinth and the Hellenic League. 481 BCE – The congress at Corinth and the Hellenic League.

27 Xerxes Demands Earth and Water “Of those who gave earth and water there were the following, Thessalians, Dolopians, Ainianes, Perraibians, Lokrians, Magnetes, Malians, Achaians of Phthiotis and Thebans and other Boiotians except for the Thespians and Plataians. The Greeks who were proposing to make war on the barbaroi swore an oath against them, that any Greeks who gave themselves up to the Persians without being compelled to should be required to give up a tenth of their property to the god of Delphi, if things went well for the Greeks. This was the oath which the Greeks swore. As for Athens and Sparta, Xerxes did not send heralds there to ask for earth, because when Dareios had sent for this very purpose, the former had thrown the messengers into a pit, the latter into a well, bidding them take earth and water thence to the king.” (Herodotus , Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 109C). “Of those who gave earth and water there were the following, Thessalians, Dolopians, Ainianes, Perraibians, Lokrians, Magnetes, Malians, Achaians of Phthiotis and Thebans and other Boiotians except for the Thespians and Plataians. The Greeks who were proposing to make war on the barbaroi swore an oath against them, that any Greeks who gave themselves up to the Persians without being compelled to should be required to give up a tenth of their property to the god of Delphi, if things went well for the Greeks. This was the oath which the Greeks swore. As for Athens and Sparta, Xerxes did not send heralds there to ask for earth, because when Dareios had sent for this very purpose, the former had thrown the messengers into a pit, the latter into a well, bidding them take earth and water thence to the king.” (Herodotus , Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 109C).

28 The Hellenic League Calls for Greek Loyalty “The Greeks who were loyal to the Greek cause now met and exchanged promises and guarantees, and concluded in their discussion that the most important thing of all was to patch up their quarrels and put an end to the wars between them; there were a number of wars going on, but the most serious was that between Athens and Aigina. Later, when they heard that Xerxes and his army was at Sardis, they decided to send spies to Asia to find out what the king was doing and envoys to Argos to conclude an alliance against the Persians; they also decided to send envoys to Sicily to Gelon the son of Deinomenes, and others to Kerkyra and others to Crete, to bid them come to the rescue of Greece. They hoped in fact that the Greek world would be united and that everyone would join together and pursue the same course of action, since the same dangers threatened all Greeks alike. The power of Gelon was said to be very great, greater than that of all the other Greeks.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 110B). “The Greeks who were loyal to the Greek cause now met and exchanged promises and guarantees, and concluded in their discussion that the most important thing of all was to patch up their quarrels and put an end to the wars between them; there were a number of wars going on, but the most serious was that between Athens and Aigina. Later, when they heard that Xerxes and his army was at Sardis, they decided to send spies to Asia to find out what the king was doing and envoys to Argos to conclude an alliance against the Persians; they also decided to send envoys to Sicily to Gelon the son of Deinomenes, and others to Kerkyra and others to Crete, to bid them come to the rescue of Greece. They hoped in fact that the Greek world would be united and that everyone would join together and pursue the same course of action, since the same dangers threatened all Greeks alike. The power of Gelon was said to be very great, greater than that of all the other Greeks.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 110B).

29 The Battle of Artemisium (480 BCE)

30 The Battle of Artemisium (480 BCE) Naval battle; spread out over 3 days. Naval battle; spread out over 3 days. Persian fleet attempting to maintain contact with Persian land forces. Persian fleet attempting to maintain contact with Persian land forces. Under Spartan leadership (Eurybiades in command); majority of fleet Athenian. Under Spartan leadership (Eurybiades in command); majority of fleet Athenian. Largely a delaying tactic. Largely a delaying tactic. Large part of the Persian fleet destroyed by a storm. Large part of the Persian fleet destroyed by a storm. Greek fleet outmaneuvers Persian fleet but end with a draw. Greek fleet outmaneuvers Persian fleet but end with a draw.

31 Thermopylae commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Battle_of_Th...

32 Battle of Thermopylae (Summer 480 BCE) Delaying tactic for the evacuation of Athens; time for Greek forces to muster. Delaying tactic for the evacuation of Athens; time for Greek forces to muster. Narrow road through Thermopylae the only path into central Greece (only 2 metres wide). Narrow road through Thermopylae the only path into central Greece (only 2 metres wide). Greek forces = 4000 men (incl. 300 Spartans) under the command of Leonidas. Greek forces = 4000 men (incl. 300 Spartans) under the command of Leonidas. Persian numerical advantage eliminated by: 1. The terrain. 2. Equipment. Persian numerical advantage eliminated by: 1. The terrain. 2. Equipment. The betrayal of Ephialtes. The betrayal of Ephialtes. Leonidas dismisses his troops (Only 300 Spartans and 400 Thebans remain). Leonidas dismisses his troops (Only 300 Spartans and 400 Thebans remain). Spartans and Leonidas destroyed; battle a success – Athens given time to evacuate. Spartans and Leonidas destroyed; battle a success – Athens given time to evacuate.

33 Salamis

34 Battle of Salamis (Sept. 480 BCE) Athens evacuated; Difference of opinion on strategy after Thermopylae. Athens evacuated; Difference of opinion on strategy after Thermopylae. Spartans want to fortify the Isthmus of Corinth and face the Persians on land. Spartans want to fortify the Isthmus of Corinth and face the Persians on land. Athenian fleet stationed at Salamis; Athens demands a naval engagement at Salamis; Themistocles threatens Athenian withdrawal (Themistocles and the Oracle of Delphi). Athenian fleet stationed at Salamis; Athens demands a naval engagement at Salamis; Themistocles threatens Athenian withdrawal (Themistocles and the Oracle of Delphi). Stand made in narrow straits at Salamis; Persian numerical advantage eliminated by: 1. Narrow straits. 2. Greek advantage in ship design (Tactical counterpart to Thermopylae). Stand made in narrow straits at Salamis; Persian numerical advantage eliminated by: 1. Narrow straits. 2. Greek advantage in ship design (Tactical counterpart to Thermopylae). Persian fleet destroyed; Xerxes flees with remnants of Persian fleet; Persian army left behind under Mardonius. Persian fleet destroyed; Xerxes flees with remnants of Persian fleet; Persian army left behind under Mardonius.

35 Battle of Platea (479 BCE)

36 Battle of Platea (479 BCE) After Salamis (Sept. 480 BCE), Persian army remains in Greece under Mardonius. After Salamis (Sept. 480 BCE), Persian army remains in Greece under Mardonius. Greek forces march north toward Platea after Salamis; under command of Spartan, Pausanias. Greek forces march north toward Platea after Salamis; under command of Spartan, Pausanias. Persian supplies running out; Greek forces beginning to gather and grow. Persian supplies running out; Greek forces beginning to gather and grow. Spartan contingent absorbs the Persian attack; Mardonius is killed; Persian remnants retreat. Spartan contingent absorbs the Persian attack; Mardonius is killed; Persian remnants retreat. Greek forces move north to the city of Thebes and attack it (Medizers); traitors arrested and tortured to death. Greek forces move north to the city of Thebes and attack it (Medizers); traitors arrested and tortured to death. Persian defeat is total. Persian defeat is total.

37 Greek Unity? “These fought the war – Lakedaimonians, Athenians, Corinthians, Tegeates, Sikyonians, Aiginetans, Megarians, Epidaurians, Orchomenians, Pleiasians, Troizenians, Hermionians, Tirynthians, Plataians, Thespians, Mykenaians, Keians, Melians, Tenians, Naxians, Eretrians, Chalkidians, Scyrians, Eleians, Poteidaians, Leukadians, Anaktorians, Kythnians, Siphnians, Amprakiots, Lepreates.” (Meiggs and Lewis no. 27. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 115B). “These fought the war – Lakedaimonians, Athenians, Corinthians, Tegeates, Sikyonians, Aiginetans, Megarians, Epidaurians, Orchomenians, Pleiasians, Troizenians, Hermionians, Tirynthians, Plataians, Thespians, Mykenaians, Keians, Melians, Tenians, Naxians, Eretrians, Chalkidians, Scyrians, Eleians, Poteidaians, Leukadians, Anaktorians, Kythnians, Siphnians, Amprakiots, Lepreates.” (Meiggs and Lewis no. 27. Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 115B). “Now the Phokians were the only ones of the peoples hereabouts who did not medise; their only reason, I infer, was their hatred of the Thessalians; if the Thessalians had joined the Greek ranks, in my opinion the Phokians would have medised. As it was, when the Thessalians made the proposal, they declined to give any money and said that they could medise as well as the Thessalians, if they were so minded; but they would not of their own volition betray the Greek cause.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 117). “Now the Phokians were the only ones of the peoples hereabouts who did not medise; their only reason, I infer, was their hatred of the Thessalians; if the Thessalians had joined the Greek ranks, in my opinion the Phokians would have medised. As it was, when the Thessalians made the proposal, they declined to give any money and said that they could medise as well as the Thessalians, if they were so minded; but they would not of their own volition betray the Greek cause.” (Herodotus Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 117).

38 Consequences of the Persian Wars Change in the Greek view of Persia and of themselves. Change in the Greek view of Persia and of themselves. Greece drawn into Near Eastern politics. Greece drawn into Near Eastern politics. The rise of Athenian confidence and power. The rise of Athenian confidence and power.


Download ppt "Pan-Hellenism and Relations between States February 8 th, 2012."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google