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From Cyrus the Great to the Persian War. Events leading to the Battle of Marathon Construct a timeline or chart in your notes of events leading to the.

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Presentation on theme: "From Cyrus the Great to the Persian War. Events leading to the Battle of Marathon Construct a timeline or chart in your notes of events leading to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Cyrus the Great to the Persian War

2 Events leading to the Battle of Marathon Construct a timeline or chart in your notes of events leading to the Persian War using chapter 9, section 1. DatesPeopleEvents

3 Herodotus (484-425 BC) –founder of historical writing –“The Father of History”. –In his greatest work, “The Persian War”, he describes the crucial battle of Marathon between the Greeks and the Persians.

4 550 BC Conquers Lydia (in Asia Minor) –Herodotus Histories, 1.53, p. 21. King Croesus of Lydia consults the oracle of Delphi when contemplating an attack on the Persians. The oracle responded that Croesus' attack would "destroy a great empire." Unfortunately for Croesus, the great empire that was destroyed was his own empire of Lydia. –Herodotus Histories, 1.80, p. 33. Cyrus instructed the Persians to "kill without mercy every Lydian they met--except Croesus” Conquers Babylon –Ends “Babylonian Captivity” of the Israelites Cyrus the Great unites Persia –Unites Persian aristocrats to revolt against the Medes –Gains independence for Persia –Begins building an empire

5 529 BC The Persian Empire –2500 miles from east to west –Look at the map on pg. 261 Which modern-day countries? Cyrus dies –His son Cambyses takes over DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC Cyrus the GreatRevolt against the Medes Cyrus dies

6 525 BC Cambyses conquers Egypt –Herodotus Histories, 3.30-2, p. 165-7. Cambyses murders his brother Smerdis and his sister, who was also his wife. –Insanity !!!!! Cambyses dies in 521 BC –Darius takes over Darius controls Asia; wants to be master of Europe too DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquers Egypt

7 499 BC Ionians (Greeks in Asia Minor) declare a revolt against the Persians –Ionians seek assistance from Sparta and Athens Sparta says “no” –Athens sends help, but not nearly enough Athens sent 20 ships, but they were crushed by the Persians Athens angered a giant DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC 499 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquering Egypt Revolt in Asia Minor

8 490 BC - Persia seeks to punish Athens for assisting the Ionians –Darius sends a fleet of warships to attack Greece at the port city of Marathon. DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC 499 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquering Egypt Revolt in Asia Minor

9 490 BC The Battle of Marathon –Herodotus Histories, 22.109-110. –109. Now the opinions of the generals of the Athenians were divided, and the one party urged that they should not fight a battle, seeing that they were too few to fight with the army of the Medes (Persians), while the others, and among them Miltiades (a Greek general), advised that they should do so……Miltiades … said as follows: "With thee now it rests, Callimachos (a Greek general), either to bring Athens under slavery, or by making her free to leave behind thee for all the time that men shall live a memorial … For now the Athenians have come to a danger the greatest to which they have ever come since they were a people; and on the one hand, if they submit to the Medes (Persians), it is determined what they shall suffer… –110. Thus speaking Miltiades gained Callimachos to his side; and the opinion of the polemarch (leader of Athens) being added, it was thus determined to fight a battle. DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC 499 BC 490 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquering Egypt Revolt in Asia Minor Battle of Marathon

10 Battle of Marathon not going well –Persia is clobbering Athens DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC 499 BC 490 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquering Egypt Revolt in Asia Minor Battle of Marathon

11 Pheidippides is sent from Athens to Sparta to ask for help –Herodotus Histories, 22.105. –105. First of all, while they were still in the city, the generals sent off to Sparta a herald, namely Pheidippides an Athenian … runner of long day-courses and one who practiced this as his profession. … DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC 499 BC 490 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquering Egypt Revolt in Asia Minor Battle of Marathon 1896 Olympic marathon

12 Sparta doesn’t help, but a storm does –A strong storm trashes the Persian navy Athens wins the Battle of Marathon –The score: Greece 1, Persia 0 DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC 499 BC 490 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquering Egypt Revolt in Asia Minor Battle of Marathon

13 480 BC Battle of Thermopylae –Xerxes inherits the Persian throne –Wants to finish what Darius started 10 years ago –Land Battle Outnumbered Greeks are doomed 300 Spartans led by Leonidas buy time to regroup Persian army wins but suffers heavily –Naval Battle Outnumbered Greeks are doomed Themistocles convinces Greece to build ships Greek navy wins Persians quit the war in defeat –The score: Greece 2, Persia 0 DatesPeopleEvents 550 BC 529 BC 525 BC 499 BC 490 BC 480 BC Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Xerxes Revolt against the Medes Cyrus dies / Empire Conquering Egypt Revolt in Asia Minor Battle of Marathon Battle of Thermopylae


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