Presentation on theme: "How did Persia’s empiric rise impact ancient Greece? What was the general outcome of the Persian Wars? How did Greece respond after the end of the Persian."— Presentation transcript:
How did Persia’s empiric rise impact ancient Greece? What was the general outcome of the Persian Wars? How did Greece respond after the end of the Persian Wars? What was the immediate causes of the Peloponnesian Wars?
Greeks spent great deal of time fighting one another At the same time, Persia was growing in power By 520 BCE Persian Empire encircled Greek city-states & have conquered former Greek colonies – Zoinks!
507 BCE: Athenians sent ambassador to Persian King Darius I to create protective alliance against Sparta – Ambassador made alliance – BUT Athenian assembly eventually rejected deal – Why would the Athenian process confuse the Persians? We’ll vote on it and get back to you! WHAT?! ?
499-493 BCE: Greek cities throughout Asia Minor rise up against Persian rule. 498 BCE: After pleading for an alliance with the Persians, the Athenians back the Ionian Revolt – Help Ionians to sack Persian city of Sardis – Result: Persians are ANGRY!!! Me so angry
490 B.C. - King Darius sent 600 ships and 20,000 soldiers to invade Greece; wanted to punish Athenians for helping Ionian rebels Persian army landed at Marathon, north of Athens – Athenian force had no horses or archers, only fierce foot soldiers (hoplites; 10,000) – Athenians bravely (or stupidly) lined up their men and attacked (after 4 day standoff) – Center of the line breaks, but the flanks engulf the Persians Casualties – Persians 6,400, Athenians 192
Key Individuals: – King Darius I of Persia – Overthrown king of Athens, Hippias who fled to Persia after he was ousted – Miltiades led Athenian troops against the Persians at Marathon
Greeks sent their fastest runner Pheidippides to carry home news of victory. – Sprinted 26.2 miles from battle site to Athens Arrived and said, “Rejoice, we conquer,” and died from exhaustion This is where we get the 26.2 miles in the contemporary marathon race!
Explain the causes of the Persian Greco War. Who was the King of Persia in 480 BCE? Describe the “match-up” between the Persian army and the Greek army at Marathon. What fatal flaw did the Persians make leading to their loss at Marathon? What is the “Myth of Marathon”?
The Greek ruler Themistocles knew Marathon was a temporary victory. He encouraged the Athenians to build up their naval fleet and prepare for battle with the Persians. In 480 B.C. Darius’ son Xerxes sent a larger force to conquer Greece. He sent 200,000 soldiers and nearly 1,000 ships. By this time Athens had convinced Sparta to join them in battle along with 30 other Greek city- states – Sparta took charge of the army.
Persian moved through northern Greece easily Came to narrow mountain pass called Thermopylae where 300 Spartans waited for the Persians led by King Leonidas – The only road between Thessaly and Central Greece
Spartans held out heroically against the enormous Persian force for 3 days. Spartans betrayed when someone (Ephialtes) told the Persians how to get in behind the army. Spartans defeated, but won valuable time for the rest of the Greeks.
Persians march south after victory at Thermopylae; destroyed city of Athens But REWIND… in 483 Athens suddenly became very rich when a large vein of silver was discovered in the mines it owned – They use this money to build a new fleet of 100 war-ships in a new style, "triremes" with 200 men rowing 150 oars arranged in three tiers
Knowing the Persians were en route to crossing the isthmus to Peloponnese the Athenian fleet moved and was lying in wait behind the island of Salamis More than 800 Persian ships attacked Athenian navy near the island, but the large Persian ships could not maneuver the water; smaller Greek ships destroy them
The Greek sense of uniqueness was increased Athens emerged as most powerful city- state in Greece Athens organized the Delian League, an alliance with other Greek city-states
Ironically, Athens did not support democracy in other city-states Forces other city-states to pay tribute for protection Moved the Delian League treasury from Delos to Athens and begin to abuse the access to the Leagues’ money
Many Greeks resented Athenian domination Greek world split into rival camps. – Result: Sparta forges an alliance with the other city states and forms the Peloponnesian League – Declares war on Athens, which eventually leads to the down fall of Athens
A 27 year war broke out in 431 B.C. engulfing all of Greece
Athens at a disadvantage: – Geography – Navy = no good against Spartans located inland – After Spartan invasion, Pericles allows people from countryside to move inside city Result: Overcrowding leads to a plague ; killed 1/3 of the people – Internal struggles undermined Democratic government
Sparta allied with Persia, their old enemy, against the Delian League. 404 B.C., with the help of the Persian navy, the Spartans captured Athens and stripped it of its fleet and empire
The Peloponnesian war ended Athenian greatness In Athens Democratic government suffered: corruption and selfish interests replaced order Fighting continued to disrupt the Greek world Sparta itself suffered defeat at the hands of Thebes, another Greek city-state Greece was left vulnerable to invasion (hello Alexander the Great…we’ll meet you soon!) Cultural development was halted