The Persian Empire Persians were warriors & nomads who lived in Persia. Today this area is known as southwestern ______________. __________________ united the Persians. Persia built largest empire world had seen at that time (559-530 B.C.) Conquered Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, etc. Cyrus treated all his subjects well (helped empire grow). 521 B.C.--________ came to power & reorganized govt. Persian Empire too large to manage. Divided empire into 20 provinces called ____________. Each one ruled by a __________, or “protector of the kingdom.” Satraps only answered to King. Persian army consisted of full-time, paid soldiers known as _________________.
Persian Religion & Persian Wars Religion was known as ______________. Founded by Zoroaster in 660 after seeing visions in his youth. Believed in one god, the freedom of humans, & triumph of good. Greeks settling colonies in Mediterranean area clashed w/Persians. 499 B.C.—Athenian army helped Greeks in Asia Minor rebel against Persian rulers. Rebellion failed, but __________ decided to stop Greeks from messing with his empire.
Battle of Marathon 490 B.C.—Persians landed 20,000 soldiers on plain of _______________. (short distance from Athens) Persians waited there for Athenians to advance, but never came. Persian commander ordered Persians back onto the boats. Strongest part of army loaded boats first (cavalry). When horses were on boat, Greeks charged down hills. Persians were nearly defenseless & were easily defeated. Athenians sent message back to Athens w/messenger named Pheidippides. Runner raced about ______ miles from Marathon to Athens. He got there, collapsed from exhaustion, and announced “_____________,” then died.
Another Persian Strike When Darius died, his son _______ took over. He vowed revenge against Athenians. In 480 B.C., he sent nearly 180,000 troops & thousands of warships. Greeks joined forces w/_____________. King _______________ served as commander. Athens provided navy. Athenian general _______________ came up w/plan to fight Persians. Best strategy would be to attack Persian ships & cut off food supplies to army. Needed to stall Persian army—best place was at _______________. It was a narrow pass through mountains & would be easy to defend. Nearly 7,000 Greek soldiers held off Persians for almost 2 days. “That is good news. We will fight in the shade!”
Another Persian Strike Traitor showed Persians mountain path that led them around Greeks. As Persians went around Greeks, King Leonidas sent most troops to safety while several hundred stayed & fought til the death. Greek loss @ Thermopylae allowed Athens time to assemble 200 ships. Attacked Persians at strait of ___________. Battle of Salamis, Greeks used faster, smaller ships to defeat Persian fleet. Persian army marched on & burned ________ to the ground.
Persian Empire Falls Losing Athens pushed Greeks even more. Early 479 B.C.—came together to form largest Greek army ever assembled! Greek army crushed Persians at Battle of _____________. Working together, Greek city-states saved their homeland. Defeat weakened Persian Empire along with other reasons: War Rulers taxed people & spent money to live good lifestyle. Kings had many wives & children—so kings’ sons had little power. Were constantly killing rulers to gain power—6 of 9 rulers after Darius were murdered!!!