10Creating an EmpirePersia conquered Mesopotamia, Syria, Judah, and the Greek city-states of AnatoliaCyrus treated conquered people fairlyAllowed them to keep their own languages, religions, and lawsAllowed the Jews to return to Israel
11Armies took over Egypt, western India, and lands northeast of Greece From the west to the east stretched 3,000 miles (this is about the size of the continental United States today)
12Persian Roads Persians improved the roads begun by the Assyrians Royal Road was 1,500 miles from Persia to AnatoliaMessengers could travel from Persia to Anatolia in just seven daysThe same trip would have taken 3 months before the road was built
15Persian Government Darius I ruled Persia from 522 to 486 BC Divided the empire into provinces called satrapiesEach satrapies ruled by a governor called a satrap (means “defender of the kingdom”)Satrap collected taxes, judged legal cases, managed the police, and recruited soldiers for the Persian army
16Persian Army Persian maintained a full-time, paid, professional army Best fighters were 10,000 soldiers called the “Immortals” because when one died another soldier immediately took his place
18Who was Zoroaster? Persians were polytheistic A teacher named ZoroasterPreached a monotheistic religionReligion was called Zoroastrianism
19Zoroastrianism Taught one supreme god God was called Ahura Mazda or “Wise Lord”Ahura Mazda was creator of all thingsLeader of the forces of goodBelieves people were free to choose between good and evilReligion still has about 200,000 followers today. Most in South Asia.
20Progress CheckHow did Persian rulers unite their vast empire?
22The Persian Wars Persians clashed with the Greeks Greeks in Anatolia revolted against PersiaAthenians sent warships to help rebelsPersians crushed the uprisingKing Darius decided to punish the Greeks
24How Did the Greeks Win at Marathon? Darius sent a fleet of 600 ships and army to invade GreecePersians landed at MarathonPersians waited for the Greeks to fightAthenians had only 10,000 troops compared to the Persian’s 20,000 soldiers
25Persians sailed to Athens to attack by sea Persians loaded their ships with cavalryAs soon as the Persians had their horsemen on their ships, Athenians charged down the hillsAthenians caught the Persians foot soldiers standing in the waterPersians suffered a terrible defeat
26MarathonA messenger ran 25 miles from Marathon to Athens with news of the victoryWhen he reached Athens he cried “Victory”Then collapsed and died from exhaustionToday’s marathon races are named for him and are just over 26 miles
28Land and Sea Battles Persians vowed revenge Xerxes invaded Greece with 200,000 troops and thousands of warshipsThe Greek city-states banded together to fight the Persians
29Battle of Thermopylae King Leonidas of Sparta supplied soldiers Themistocles of Athens directed Greek naval forcesThemistocles wanted to attack the Persian’s ships and cut off the army’s suppliesTo do this, King Leonidas of Sparta had to stop the Persian army from reaching Athen
30Battle of ThermopylaeKing Leonidas led 7,000 soldiers into a battle that lasted for three daysA traitor showed the Persians a trail leading behind the GreeksRealizing he would soon be surrounded, Leonidas dismissed most of the troopsLeonidas and 300 Spartans remained a fought to the death
31The Spartan’s heroic stand gave Themistocles time to attack Persia’s ships Athenian fleet lured the Persian fleet into the strait of Salamis near AthensAthenian ships were smaller and fasterMost of the Persian fleet was destroyedPersian foot soldiers set Athens on fire
32Battle at PlataeaCombined forces of the Greek city-states formed their largest army yetImproved fighting with better armor and weaponsGreek army faced Persians at PlataeaTwo sides evenly matched with 100,000 menGreeks defeated the PersiansFreed Anatolia from Persian rulePeace did no come until 449 BC
34Decline of PersiaPersian army was no longer strong enough to defend the empirePersian people were unhappy with governmentKings taxed the people heavilyPersian empire fell when attacked by Alexander the Great and a new Greek empire began
35Progress CheckAfter the losses in Greece, why did the Persians grow unhappy with their government?