2Causes of the War What do you see here? What do the different colors represent?Who is allied to whom?Why might these countries make these alliances?Which countries might have the greatest or least need to join an alliance?
3Europe at its PeakIndustrial Revolution made Western European Nations the most wealthy and technologically advanced on earthWestern Europe Dominated the global economyAll aspects of life were affected by modernizationStandard of living and life expectancy were at an all time high in the early 20th century
4Cause #1: Imperial Tensions European nations had competing coloniesColonies served as sources of inexpensive raw materials, pools of cheap labor, and markets for finished productsMany colonial conflicts nearly turned into full fledged wars between their mother countries
6Cause #2: MilitarismGlorification of war and increase in military spendingGermany competed with England’s naval superiorityEngland responded by producing new military technology and increasing its size to double that of the next biggest navyRussian mobilized 6 million troops, so Germany greatly expanded the size of its standing army
71910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures Militarism & Arms RaceTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.18701880189019001910191494130154268289398Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%
8Cause #3: NationalismGreat pride in one’s country or aspiring to become one’s own countryGermany (1871) and Italy (1870) had only recently became united, independent countriesMany countries torn by tensions of different nationalist groupsCombined with militarism and imperial competition, this increased tensions in Europe
9Cause #4: The System of Alliances Countries formed a web of treaties to protect themselvesTriple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and ItalyTriple Entente: France, Russia, Great BritainTreaty system began by German Chancellor – Otto von Bismarck – wanted to accomplish 2 goals1. keep Germany out of a 2 front war2. diplomatically isolate France
101. The Alliance SystemTriple Entente:Triple Alliance:
12Victor Emmanuel II [It] The Major Players:Allied Powers:Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus]Wilhelm II [Ger]George V [Br]Victor Emmanuel II [It]Enver Pasha [Turkey]Pres. Poincare [Fr]Franz Josef [A-H]
13The War Breaks Out Nationalism in the Balkans (Pan-Slavism) Considered the powder-keg of EuropePeople with diverse religions, ethnic backgrounds, and languagesPeople of the Balkans were very proud of their heritage and greatly desired independenceAs the Ottoman Empire’s control of the Balkans receded, new nations were born (i.e. Serbia, Bosnia, Romania, etc…)Russia and Austria competed for control of new nations in the BalkansAustria-Hungary annexes Bosnia in 1908 and Serbia resents this
14Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
15War Breaks Out: The Assassination of the Archduke Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria visited the Bosnian Capital of Sarajevo on June 28, 19147 assassin from the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist group, plot against him19 year old Gavrilo Princip (the 7th and final assassin) shot the Archduke (in the neck) and his wife (in the stomach)
17War Breaks Out: Austria-Hungary’s Ultimatum Germany gave “blank check” of military support to Austria-Hungary1. The suppression of all anti-Austrian activity in Serbia2. Called for the dismissal of all Serbian officials to whom Austria-Hungary objectedDemanded the right for Austrian officials to enter Serbia to investigate Serbian state complicity in the crime and carry out suppression of anti-Austrian organizations
18War Breaks Out: Serbia Responds Knowing that they have the backing and support of Russia, Serbia accepts the first 2 ultimatums, but not the 3rdAustria-Hungary declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914
19War Breaks Out: The Alliance System Leads to War Russia supported Serbia and Germany supported Austria-HungaryWithin one week, almost all of Europe plunged into warGermany declares war on Russia (and FranceBritain declares war on Germany
23The Western FrontThe Western Front was a 475 mile long stretch of land along Frances border with Belgium and GermanyGermany tried to take France quickly in the Western Front and then turn to fight RussiaThis was called the Schlieffen Plan - a quick all-out attack on France through the lowlands of BelgiumGermans wanted to avoid fighting on 2 fronts (France and Russia)Within weeks the Germans were within 50 miles of ParisGermans made some tactical errors allowing the French and the Allied armies to regroup and push the Germans backThe two sides settled into a war of attrition
25Battles Along the Western Front Fighting summarized by long battles that took hundreds of thousands of livesAlmost no ground was gained by either sideBattle of Verdun (1916) – German initiated, lasted 6 months, 500,000 casualties for each sideBattle of Somme (1916) – French initiated, lasted 6 months, over 1 million casualties
26Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties.
27The Somme – July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
28The Eastern FrontLack of supplies and modern technology caused Russia enormous defeats to the Germans and Austrians25% of Russian troops were without weapons and instructed to take them from dead comradesBy 1917, morale of troops and country were at an all time low – Russia was ripe for a revolutionVladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks in overthrowing Tsar Nicholas as ruler of RussiaBrest-Litovsk Treaty signed with revolutionary government in Russia (1917) – lost ¼ of country
29The Balkan FrontThe Allied Powers decided that the key to victory was to defeat the Ottoman Empire by attacking near IstanbulThis would allow the allies to supply the Russians, free the Balkans, and attack Austria from the southApril 1915 – British troops land on the Gallipoli Peninsula in an attempt to capture DardanellesThe campaign failed and British were driven out
31New Weapons and Technology The industrial revolution changed the face of war – war became faster, more efficient, and amazingly accurate
32The Machine GunModern industry replaced the single-fire, short-range rifleBritish machine guns held 250 rounds of ammunition and fired 8 rounds per-second at a distance of 2,900 yards
33ArtilleryArtillery also modernized to become more effective in warfareChanges were made to make them able to carry greater and deadlier payloads to further and more accurate destinationsBecame more destructive24 million shells used in the Battle of Verdun alone
44Trench WarfareModern technology ruined the military strategy of massive charges of soldiers475 miles of trenches were dug across northern FranceBritish troops used over 10 million shovels during the warCharging “over the top”, crossing no man’s land to overtake enemy trenchesBoring, terrifying, and caused shell shockHorrible living conditions
49Total War Civilians back home made huge sacrifices Governments controlled industries and rationing“victory is only possible if all the treasures of our soil that agriculture and industry can produce are used exclusively for the war effort”Germans 17 to 60 not at war worked wherever the government told them to
50Women and the WarWorked in jobs traditionally held only by men, who were at the frontNumber in paid employment rose by over one millionWorked in paramilitary organizations to support soldiers at frontPaid less than men for same workIndustrial and civil work provided better pay and working hours than traditional jobsWomen discovered the benefits of financial autonomy and greater mobilitySome refused to return to domestic serviceWomen won the right to vote throughout Europe
56Patriotic Fervor Many Europeans looked forward to war at the start Most believed that the war would end with in months not yearsIn each country, the wartime government took control of the economy. Governments told factories what to produce and how much. Numerous factories were converted to munitions factories. Nearly every able-body civilian was put to work in the war effort.
57Patriotic FervorMany goods were in short supply that governments turned to rationingGovernments also suppressed anti-war activity – sometimes forciblyGovernments also used propaganda to keep up morale and support for the war effort
58PropagandaThe spreading of ideas, information or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause or a personIdeas, facts or allegations spread deliberately to further one’s cause or to damage an opposing causeOne of the main instruments of propaganda was the war poster
59Attitudes ChangeSoldiers changed European’s optimistic Fervor through letters about the horrors of warNo crowds or heroes’ Welcome after the war
69Homework: Propaganda Posters Create a poster that could be used by one of the combatants for propaganda purposes during WWIPoster should be as authentic as possible to the periodDue Tuesday, January 18
70World War 1: The Americans and the End of the War Lecture 4
71The Americans April 1917 – The Americans enter into the war Germans focus all their efforts on the Western front in 1917 with Russia’s exit from the warThe Americans offset the loss of the RussiansThe Americans provided money, materials, and troops
722 events drew the Americans into the war The sinking of the LusitaniaAn American Ship sunk off the coast of Ireland by the GermansOver 1200 dead including a member of the influential Vanderbilt familyThe Zimmerman TelegramSecretly sent to the Mexicans requesting an Alliance having them attack the United StatesPromised the return of Texas, New Mexico, and ArizonaAlso requests an alliance with Japan
78The Allied AdvantageThe Allies effectively implement a naval blockade of the Central PowersBlockade creates shortages of food and raw materials in Germany and AustriaGermany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were greatly weakened by the Allied effort
79The War Ends The war was questionable until the very end 1918 brought a quick endBulgaria surrenders first when a British-French force defeated the Bulgarians in GreeceTurks surrendered next in October 1918Austria-Hungary gave in November 4, 1918 after increased attacks by the Italians and civil unrest with in its own countryIndependence was promised to the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Croats if they agreed to revolt against the Central PowersGermany then stood alone when on Nov. 9, 1918 Berlin revolted and the Kaiser was overthrown and a new Government (a republic) was put into place
801918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
81SurrenderOn November 11, at 11 am, the new German government signed and agreed to an armistice ending all fighting
86The Paris Peace Conference (Versailles Peace Treaty) Allies met in Paris on Jan. 18, 1919 to negotiate the terms of peaceConference aimed at the “Big Four”Britain – Prime Minister David Lloyd GeorgeFrance – President Georges ClemenceauItaly – President Vittorio OrlandoUnited States – President Woodrow Wilson
87Wilson’s 14 PointsPresident Woodrow Wilson offered a framework for a peace of justiceHoped he could prevent future international crisisPresented ideas of self determination and promised to choose their style of government and national independencePromised new nations based on ethnic homogeneity throughout EuropeWanted to create an international body of representatives from all the world’s countries to handle conflicts diplomatically
88Italy, France, and Britain’s Plan Italy demanded that the allies honor secret treaties signed at the beginning of war that promised territory in the eastern MediterraneanBritain wanted to protect their overseas empire and increased influence in the Middle East, Africa, and East AsiaFrance wanted to punish Germany for their role in the war
89Contrasting IdeasItaly, France, and Britain’s plans for peace were in direct conflict to the United StatesBritain supported France’s idea for a peace of vengeanceFrance and Britain felt they had more pull because they had the most sacrificesAmericans only lost approximately 330,000 soldiersAs the arguing amongst the Big Four intensified, Italy abandoned the conference and Wilson returned home without accomplishing anything
90Vengeance is ServedFrance and Britain wanted Germany to pay heavily as well as humiliate and cripple them
91The ConditionsFrance demanded security against future German aggressionGermany forced to turn over its navyGermany could keep an army no larger than 100,000 soldiersReturn the region of Alsace-Lorraine to FranceDisarm the Rhineland (the region between the Rhine River and the French border
92More ConditionsFrance was to receive all coal produced in the Saar Valley for 15 yearsGermany was forced to turn over all of its overseas colonies to the alliesGermany was forced to pay war reparations (handing over a blank check)Reparations eventually equaled nearly 32 millionAgreed to the “Guilt Clause” – stated that Germany was responsible for all losses and damages incurred by the Allies during the warWilson agreed to treaty in exchange for the inclusion of the League of Nations
93What about the other Central Powers? Treaties similar to Germany’s signed with the other Central PowersMany countries experienced a change in their bordersBulgaria, Austria-Hungary, and Russia lost territoryMany new countries were created.
94Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
95Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians ( )Turkish Genocide Against ArmeniansDistricts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey19141922Erzerum215,0001,500Van197,000500Kharbert204,00035,000Diarbekir124,0003,000Bitlis220,00056,000Sivas225,00016,800Other Armenian-populated Sites in TurkeyWestern Anatolia371,80027,000Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000European Turkey194,000163,000Trapizond District73,39015,000Total2,133,190387,800