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World War 1 Lecture 1.

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1 World War 1 Lecture 1

2 Causes of the War What do you see here?
What do the different colors represent? Who is allied to whom? Why might these countries make these alliances? Which countries might have the greatest or least need to join an alliance?

3 Europe at its Peak Industrial Revolution made Western European Nations the most wealthy and technologically advanced on earth Western Europe Dominated the global economy All aspects of life were affected by modernization Standard of living and life expectancy were at an all time high in the early 20th century

4 Cause #1: Imperial Tensions
European nations had competing colonies Colonies served as sources of inexpensive raw materials, pools of cheap labor, and markets for finished products Many colonial conflicts nearly turned into full fledged wars between their mother countries

5 Economic & Imperial Rivalries

6 Cause #2: Militarism Glorification of war and increase in military spending Germany competed with England’s naval superiority England responded by producing new military technology and increasing its size to double that of the next biggest navy Russian mobilized 6 million troops, so Germany greatly expanded the size of its standing army

7 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%

8 Cause #3: Nationalism Great pride in one’s country or aspiring to become one’s own country Germany (1871) and Italy (1870) had only recently became united, independent countries Many countries torn by tensions of different nationalist groups Combined with militarism and imperial competition, this increased tensions in Europe

9 Cause #4: The System of Alliances
Countries formed a web of treaties to protect themselves Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Triple Entente: France, Russia, Great Britain Treaty system began by German Chancellor – Otto von Bismarck – wanted to accomplish 2 goals 1. keep Germany out of a 2 front war 2. diplomatically isolate France

10 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

11 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

12 Victor Emmanuel II [It]
The Major Players: Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]

13 The War Breaks Out Nationalism in the Balkans (Pan-Slavism)
Considered the powder-keg of Europe People with diverse religions, ethnic backgrounds, and languages People of the Balkans were very proud of their heritage and greatly desired independence As the Ottoman Empire’s control of the Balkans receded, new nations were born (i.e. Serbia, Bosnia, Romania, etc…) Russia and Austria competed for control of new nations in the Balkans Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia in 1908 and Serbia resents this

14 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

15 War Breaks Out: The Assassination of the Archduke
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria visited the Bosnian Capital of Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 7 assassin from the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist group, plot against him 19 year old Gavrilo Princip (the 7th and final assassin) shot the Archduke (in the neck) and his wife (in the stomach)

16 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip

17 War Breaks Out: Austria-Hungary’s Ultimatum
Germany gave “blank check” of military support to Austria-Hungary 1. The suppression of all anti-Austrian activity in Serbia 2. Called for the dismissal of all Serbian officials to whom Austria-Hungary objected Demanded the right for Austrian officials to enter Serbia to investigate Serbian state complicity in the crime and carry out suppression of anti-Austrian organizations

18 War Breaks Out: Serbia Responds
Knowing that they have the backing and support of Russia, Serbia accepts the first 2 ultimatums, but not the 3rd Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914

19 War Breaks Out: The Alliance System Leads to War
Russia supported Serbia and Germany supported Austria-Hungary Within one week, almost all of Europe plunged into war Germany declares war on Russia (and France Britain declares war on Germany

20 World War 1: The Fighting Begins
Lecture 2

21 A Multi-Front War

22 The Schlieffen Plan

23 The Western Front The Western Front was a 475 mile long stretch of land along Frances border with Belgium and Germany Germany tried to take France quickly in the Western Front and then turn to fight Russia This was called the Schlieffen Plan - a quick all-out attack on France through the lowlands of Belgium Germans wanted to avoid fighting on 2 fronts (France and Russia) Within weeks the Germans were within 50 miles of Paris Germans made some tactical errors allowing the French and the Allied armies to regroup and push the Germans back The two sides settled into a war of attrition

24 The Western Front

25 Battles Along the Western Front
Fighting summarized by long battles that took hundreds of thousands of lives Almost no ground was gained by either side Battle of Verdun (1916) – German initiated, lasted 6 months, 500,000 casualties for each side Battle of Somme (1916) – French initiated, lasted 6 months, over 1 million casualties

26 Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive.
Each side had 500,000 casualties.

27 The Somme – July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

28 The Eastern Front Lack of supplies and modern technology caused Russia enormous defeats to the Germans and Austrians 25% of Russian troops were without weapons and instructed to take them from dead comrades By 1917, morale of troops and country were at an all time low – Russia was ripe for a revolution Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks in overthrowing Tsar Nicholas as ruler of Russia Brest-Litovsk Treaty signed with revolutionary government in Russia (1917) – lost ¼ of country

29 The Balkan Front The Allied Powers decided that the key to victory was to defeat the Ottoman Empire by attacking near Istanbul This would allow the allies to supply the Russians, free the Balkans, and attack Austria from the south April 1915 – British troops land on the Gallipoli Peninsula in an attempt to capture Dardanelles The campaign failed and British were driven out

30 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915

31 New Weapons and Technology
The industrial revolution changed the face of war – war became faster, more efficient, and amazingly accurate

32 The Machine Gun Modern industry replaced the single-fire, short-range rifle British machine guns held 250 rounds of ammunition and fired 8 rounds per-second at a distance of 2,900 yards

33 Artillery Artillery also modernized to become more effective in warfare Changes were made to make them able to carry greater and deadlier payloads to further and more accurate destinations Became more destructive 24 million shells used in the Battle of Verdun alone

34 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

35 Weapons of the Industrial Age
75 different types of poison-gas bombs used Flame throwers Tanks Airplanes U-Boats/submarines New Weaponry accounted for more than 10 million deaths in World War 1

36 Sacrifices in War

37 Poison Gas Machine Gun

38 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

39 “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

40 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

41 U-Boats

42 British Tank at Ypres

43 French Renault Tank

44 Trench Warfare Modern technology ruined the military strategy of massive charges of soldiers 475 miles of trenches were dug across northern France British troops used over 10 million shovels during the war Charging “over the top”, crossing no man’s land to overtake enemy trenches Boring, terrifying, and caused shell shock Horrible living conditions

45 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

46 Trench Warfare

47 War Is HELL !!

48 World War 1: The Effects of War
Lecture 3

49 Total War Civilians back home made huge sacrifices
Governments controlled industries and rationing “victory is only possible if all the treasures of our soil that agriculture and industry can produce are used exclusively for the war effort” Germans 17 to 60 not at war worked wherever the government told them to

50 Women and the War Worked in jobs traditionally held only by men, who were at the front Number in paid employment rose by over one million Worked in paramilitary organizations to support soldiers at front Paid less than men for same work Industrial and civil work provided better pay and working hours than traditional jobs Women discovered the benefits of financial autonomy and greater mobility Some refused to return to domestic service Women won the right to vote throughout Europe

51 Munitions Workers

52 French Women Factory Workers

53 German Women Factory Workers

54 Russian Women Soldiers

55 Red Cross Nurses

56 Patriotic Fervor Many Europeans looked forward to war at the start
Most believed that the war would end with in months not years In each country, the wartime government took control of the economy. Governments told factories what to produce and how much. Numerous factories were converted to munitions factories. Nearly every able-body civilian was put to work in the war effort.

57 Patriotic Fervor Many goods were in short supply that governments turned to rationing Governments also suppressed anti-war activity – sometimes forcibly Governments also used propaganda to keep up morale and support for the war effort

58 Propaganda The spreading of ideas, information or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause or a person Ideas, facts or allegations spread deliberately to further one’s cause or to damage an opposing cause One of the main instruments of propaganda was the war poster

59 Attitudes Change Soldiers changed European’s optimistic Fervor through letters about the horrors of war No crowds or heroes’ Welcome after the war

60 Recruitment Posters





65 A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

66 New French Recruits

67 Recruits of the Central Powers
A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians

68 A Young Australian Recruit

69 Homework: Propaganda Posters
Create a poster that could be used by one of the combatants for propaganda purposes during WWI Poster should be as authentic as possible to the period Due Tuesday, January 18

70 World War 1: The Americans and the End of the War
Lecture 4

71 The Americans April 1917 – The Americans enter into the war
Germans focus all their efforts on the Western front in 1917 with Russia’s exit from the war The Americans offset the loss of the Russians The Americans provided money, materials, and troops

72 2 events drew the Americans into the war
The sinking of the Lusitania An American Ship sunk off the coast of Ireland by the Germans Over 1200 dead including a member of the influential Vanderbilt family The Zimmerman Telegram Secretly sent to the Mexicans requesting an Alliance having them attack the United States Promised the return of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona Also requests an alliance with Japan

73 The Sinking of the Lusitania

74 The Zimmerman Telegram

75 The Yanks Are Coming!

76 Americans in the Trenches

77 “Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917

78 The Allied Advantage The Allies effectively implement a naval blockade of the Central Powers Blockade creates shortages of food and raw materials in Germany and Austria Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were greatly weakened by the Allied effort

79 The War Ends The war was questionable until the very end
1918 brought a quick end Bulgaria surrenders first when a British-French force defeated the Bulgarians in Greece Turks surrendered next in October 1918 Austria-Hungary gave in November 4, 1918 after increased attacks by the Italians and civil unrest with in its own country Independence was promised to the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Croats if they agreed to revolt against the Central Powers Germany then stood alone when on Nov. 9, 1918 Berlin revolted and the Kaiser was overthrown and a new Government (a republic) was put into place

80 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies
50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

81 Surrender On November 11, at 11 am, the new German government signed and agreed to an armistice ending all fighting

82 11 a.m., November 11, 1918

83 9,000,000 Dead

84 The Somme American Cemetary, France
116,516 Americans Died

85 World War I Casualties

86 The Paris Peace Conference (Versailles Peace Treaty)
Allies met in Paris on Jan. 18, 1919 to negotiate the terms of peace Conference aimed at the “Big Four” Britain – Prime Minister David Lloyd George France – President Georges Clemenceau Italy – President Vittorio Orlando United States – President Woodrow Wilson

87 Wilson’s 14 Points President Woodrow Wilson offered a framework for a peace of justice Hoped he could prevent future international crisis Presented ideas of self determination and promised to choose their style of government and national independence Promised new nations based on ethnic homogeneity throughout Europe Wanted to create an international body of representatives from all the world’s countries to handle conflicts diplomatically

88 Italy, France, and Britain’s Plan
Italy demanded that the allies honor secret treaties signed at the beginning of war that promised territory in the eastern Mediterranean Britain wanted to protect their overseas empire and increased influence in the Middle East, Africa, and East Asia France wanted to punish Germany for their role in the war

89 Contrasting Ideas Italy, France, and Britain’s plans for peace were in direct conflict to the United States Britain supported France’s idea for a peace of vengeance France and Britain felt they had more pull because they had the most sacrifices Americans only lost approximately 330,000 soldiers As the arguing amongst the Big Four intensified, Italy abandoned the conference and Wilson returned home without accomplishing anything

90 Vengeance is Served France and Britain wanted Germany to pay heavily as well as humiliate and cripple them

91 The Conditions France demanded security against future German aggression Germany forced to turn over its navy Germany could keep an army no larger than 100,000 soldiers Return the region of Alsace-Lorraine to France Disarm the Rhineland (the region between the Rhine River and the French border

92 More Conditions France was to receive all coal produced in the Saar Valley for 15 years Germany was forced to turn over all of its overseas colonies to the allies Germany was forced to pay war reparations (handing over a blank check) Reparations eventually equaled nearly 32 million Agreed to the “Guilt Clause” – stated that Germany was responsible for all losses and damages incurred by the Allies during the war Wilson agreed to treaty in exchange for the inclusion of the League of Nations

93 What about the other Central Powers?
Treaties similar to Germany’s signed with the other Central Powers Many countries experienced a change in their borders Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, and Russia lost territory Many new countries were created.

94 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

95 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
Turkish Genocide of Armenians ( ) Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 1914 1922 Erzerum 215,000 1,500 Van 197,000 500 Kharbert 204,000 35,000 Diarbekir 124,000 3,000 Bitlis 220,000 56,000 Sivas 225,000 16,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia 371,800 27,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 309,000 70,000 European Turkey 194,000 163,000 Trapizond District 73,390 15,000 Total 2,133,190 387,800

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