Presentation on theme: "World War I Strategies and Stalemate Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe."— Presentation transcript:
World War I Strategies and Stalemate
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The “Spar k”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip
Causes of the War
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
4. Aggressive Nationalism
The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
Europe in 1914
Who’s To Blame?
German Atrocities in Belgium
Recruits of the Central Powers Austro- Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
New French Recruits
Russian Women Soldiers
Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!
Advantages: Allies- held superior numbers, financial resources, and command of the sea. Central Powers- possessed internal communication lines and attacked first.
Germany: Schlieffen Plan- attack France by way of Belgium, conquer France quickly, then focus on Russia.
France: Courage and spirit could not defeat machine guns and heavy artillery. Schlieffen Plan fails, as the French are a much more difficult opponent.
Britain: The British enter the war after the invasion of Belgium, a neutral country. Introduce the armored tank into battles.
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
A Multi-Front War
Trench Warfare. A new type of war, fought by digging trenches, positioning artillery, barbed wire, land mines over an area. Millions lost their lives fighting this way. Battle of Somme- 1 million die.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Russia: Battle of Tannenberg- Russian army captured/ destroyed by Germany. 60,000 casualties, 90,000 POWs.
New Allies: Bulgaria and Turkey join the Central Powers. Italy joined the Allies, but dropped out. Romania joined the Allies.
A New Strategy: Winston Churchill proposed to go around the Western front and attack the Dardanelles and knock Turkey and Bulgaria out of the war. Failed
Battle of Verdun Germany attempted to inflict heavy French casualties and occupy forces. Failed
War at Sea Unrestricted submarine warfare by German U-boats. Sank the Lusitania, killing 1200 and 128 Americans.
The Sinking of the Lusitania
U.S. enters the War Why? German Unrestricted Submarine warfare Zimmerman Note- telegram from German official to Mexico, promising German aid to win back Texas and SW U.S.
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!
Americans in the Trenches
British Tank at Ypres
French Renault Tank
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Introduction of Poison Gas…
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197, Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800