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1914-1918: The World at War Different Names  “The War to End All Wars”  “The Great War”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”  “World.

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Presentation on theme: "1914-1918: The World at War Different Names  “The War to End All Wars”  “The Great War”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”  “World."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 : The World at War

3 Different Names  “The War to End All Wars”  “The Great War”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”  “World War I” (given this only after World War II)

4 The M.A.I.N. Long-Term Causes of the War

5 1. Militarism & Arms Race Militarism-- the glorification of armed strength and the build up of military force Naval Arms Race between Germany & Britain

6 1. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

7 2. Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

8 Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy Alliance: Agreement between nations to aid and protect one another

9 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

10 The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]

11 Europe in 1914

12 3. Imperial Rivalries

13 4. Nationalism Pride in or devotion to one’s nation

14 French Nationalism France wanted revenge for its humiliating defeat in Franco-Prussian War of Also wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine, which it had lost in that war.

15 Nationalism in Austria-Hungary All the ethnic groups in Austria-Hungary wanted their own independent nations

16 Pan-Slavism: Slavic Nationalism A movement among Slavic peoples that promoted the unity of all Slavic peoples

17 The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

18 The “Spark” (The Immediate Cause)

19 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

20 The Assassination of the Archduke : Sarajevo

21 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

22 Who’s To Blame?

23 A Chain Reaction Leads to War

24 1. Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia, July 28, 1914

25 2. Germany supports Austria-Hungary

26 3. Russia mobilizes to defend Serbia

27 4. Germany gives Russia 12 hours to demobilize & demands that France stay neutral if Russia & Germany do go to war (they refuse)

28 5. Germany declares war on Russia, August 1, 1914

29 6. Germany declares war on France, August 3, 1914 (because Germany knew they’d side with Russia and Germany’s Schlieffen Plan required that Germany fight France first)

30 7. Germans cross neutral Belgium to attack France, August 4, 1914

31 8. Britain declares war on Germany, August 4, 1914

32 9. Japan enters war on the side of Great Britain & France, August 23, 1914

33 10. Ottoman Empire enters war on side of Austria-Hungary, October 28, 1914

34 11. Italy, who did not honor its treaty with Germany & Austria- Hungary, joins the Allies, May 1915

35 12. Bulgaria joins the Central Powers, October 1915

36 13. Greece & Romania join the Allies, 1916

37 The Schlieffen Plan

38 German Atrocities in Belgium

39 Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!  Home by Christmas!  No major war in 50 years!  Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!

40 Recruitment Posters

41 A Young Australian Recruit

42 Recruits of the Central Powers Austro-HungariansAustro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

43 New French Recruits

44 A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

45

46 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

47 A Multi-Front War

48 The Western Front

49 Trench Warfare

50 “No Man’s Land”

51 Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.

52 The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

53 War Is HELL !!

54 Sacrifices in War

55 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun


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