2George OrwellBorn Eric Arthur Blair in Motihari, India in 1903, Other works:Down and Out in London and ParisBurmese Days1984
3The Life of Orwell (1903-1950) Eric Blair (pen name is George Orwell) He thought Eric sounded too snobbishTotally opposed to the way the government operated and how the poor was always inferior to the rich.
4Wrote Animal Farm in 1943Was convinced that Stalin betrayed the revolutionSaw Stalin as power-hungry assassin with a lack of respect for the truthWrote AF to remind people of history and to show how false the notion was that Russia was a socialists state but proved it was actually a communist state
5Where did Animal Farm come from? George Orwell got the idea for his story when he saw small boy driving a horse and whipping it whenever it tried to turn in another direction.
6Orwell then began to create his fable about the animals of Manor Farm— He tried to fuse political purpose with artistic purpose in one novel.
7What is a Novel?A long fictional story, whose length is normally somewhere between 100 and 500 book pages which use all of the elements of storytelling: plot, character, setting, theme and point of view.
8Novels… Embrace many conflicts and multiple themes. Entertain us and tell us something about the world we live in.Take an enormous amount of time to write.Are written out of a writer’s belief in a private vision, is a gift of knowledge about what is going on between people here on earth.
9The Form of Animal FarmBeast Fable (brief and humorous stories in which animals speak and act like humans)Allegory- has two different levelsa. Each character stands for something or someone elseb. Writer uses these characters to convey a moral message.
10The Form Cont.3. Satire- form of literature that uses ridicule to make specific people look foolisha. dramatic ironyb. situational irony
11Themes in Animal FarmFreedom and individual dignity must be guarded carefully.Language is a very powerful tool; if used incorrectly, it can enslave and confuse us.
12Themes in Animal Farm Cont. 3. Weakness can be dominated by strength, trickery and fear.4. Hope and vision must be kept alive, or we might live like the animals of Manor Farm.
13Historical ThemeRussian Revolution was not about the proletariat (the working class) ruling themselves, but was simply tyranny under a dictator
14Terms to Know Allegory Fable Satire ANIMAL FARM is both an allegorical and a satiricalnovel.
15What is an Allegory?The characters, setting, and events make sense on the literal level, but are designed to represent OTHER characters, settings and events.There is a story within another meaning underneath the surface story. Example: Hans Christian Anderson’s Ugly Duckling tells the story of his life.
16Allegory A narrative that acts as an extended metaphor. Events and people symbolize things not mentioned in the narrative.
17FableA story usually about animals that have human powers and faults. They usually have the power to talk. The tale is told to teach a moral. The characters teach lessons that can be used in everyday life.
18Beast FableA brief, humorous story, animals speak and act like human beings.Its purpose is to expose human weakness and teach a moral lesson.
19What is Satire?The intentional degrading of a subject or subjects for comic or dramatic effectUses laughter as a weaponIt is a allegorical retelling of the Russian Revolution and the rise of Josef StalinIt is a satire on communism and human nature
20SATIRECombines humor and criticism (ridicule) to suggest change and reform.Criticism is constructive rather than destructive - design to inspire correction
21More on SatireAnimal Farm ridicules communism. Orwell’s aim is to destroy the justification for totalitarianism (control under one political group) government. He wants people to see the fate of those who allow themselves to be led into the totalitarian state. He believed that it was the destruction of free will and reasoning.
22Devices of Satire Hyperbole - exaggeration or overstatement Paradox - statement or idea which self-contradiction is true
23Devices (Contd.) Irony - author says the opposite of what he/she means Understatement - an intentional lack of emphasis in expression
24Propaganda: The use of persuasion to further one’s own cause. 1. Slogans - “catchy phrases”2. Loaded words - emotional words like peace and patriot.
25Propaganda (Contd.)3. Powerful images - images created through references to beauty, happiness, fear and terror4. Appeal to fears - suggestions that something terrible will happen if one doesn’t follow certain instructions
26Propaganda (Contd.)5. Appeal to basic desires and needs - fulfills the desire for survival (food, clothing, shelter) but also the need for love, belonging and human dignity.6. Band Wagon - everyone else is doing it, so you should too.
27Other Symbols“Beasts of England” – represents the “Communist Internationale,” a real song penned by supporters of communism in the early 1900’s.Windmill – stands for Russian industry. (Soviet leaders focused on making Russia industrially modern after the Revolution of 1917.)
30Squealer Short, fat, twinkle-eyed and nimble pig “brilliant talker” Very persuasiveHe is the propaganda apparatus that spreads the “big lie” and makes people believe it
31Old MajorThe wise old pig whose stirring speech to the animals helps set the Rebellion in motionRole in novel compares to Karl Marx, whose ideas set the Communist Revolution in motion
32NapoleonA “large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar”, not much of a talkerreputation for getting his own wayHas more power than ideasHis name…think of the other Napoleon (Bonaparte) who took over the French Revolution and turned it into a personal empire.Compare to Stalin and other dictators
33Snowball Energetic, brilliant leader Successfully organizes the defense of the Farm (like Trotsky with the Red Army)Eloquent speaker with original ideasStruggles for leadership with Napoleon after Major’s death
34MinimusA pig who composes songs and poems honoring Napoleon
36Boxer Believes in the Rebellion and in its leader Two favorite sayings “Napoleon is always right” and “I will work harder.”Huge size and strength and untiring labor saves the Farm again and againFinally collapses from age and being overworked
37Clover Is a hard working mare Is not very intelligent Is loving and maternal towards other animalsIs the only animal whose thoughts are revealed
38Mollie Enjoys pretty ribbons, sugar, and human attention Is a vain white mareEnjoys pretty ribbons, sugar, and human attentionIs the only animal who leaves the farm willinglyMay symbolize the White Russians (opposed the Red Army during the Civil War)
40The DogsVicious killers who protect the pigs and do their biddingRepresent Stalin’s secret police
41The SheepBleat whatever slogan they are taught by the pigsRepresent unthinking masses
42MurielThe goat that reads better than CloverOften reads things (such as the Commandments) aloud to her
43Benjamin Donkey Worst-tempered and oldest animal on the farm A loner who keeps his opinions to himselfSkeptical of changeNever laughsA hard worker who never shirks his duties but never volunteersIs devoted to Boxer
44The Pigeons Spread the word of the Rebellion beyond the farm, much like the Communists spread the doctrine of the revolution beyond the boundaries of the Soviet Union
45Moses A raven Was Mr. Jones’ pet Flees with Jones but is later welcomed back by the pigsIs given beer by the pigs event though he does not workSoothes the animals with his story of Sugarcandy MountainRepresents the Russian Orthodox Church and religious institutions in general)
47Farmer Jones The drunk Represents the Czar Nicholas II Stands for any government that declines through its own corruption and mismanagement
48Mr. Pilkington Owns the neighborhood Foxwood Farm Spends too much time fishing and hunting to run his farmRepresents England and Allies
49Mr. Frederick Owns the neighborhood Pinchfield Farm Cheats Napoleon and leads the disastrous attack on the farmRepresents Germany
50Mr. WhymperIs a lawyer who serves as an intermediary between Napoleon and the outside worldIs sly and self serving
51Background to Animal Farm Published in 1945In the previous 4 months: Pres. Roosevelt, Mussolini and Hitler had died; Churchill had been voted out of office.Germany had surrendered, and the U.S. dropped atomic bombs over Japan.Of the big three Allied leaders, only Stalin survived.
52More BackgroundDuring WWII, Russia had been an ally of the U.S. and England.After the Battle of Normandy (1944) Western nations had a feeling of solidarity with the Russian people. The Russian Army helped protect England from a German invasion.As a result of the pro-Russian atmosphere, Orwell had a hard time finding a publisher for his novel.
53Events Battle of the Cowshed – anti-revolutionary invasion by the West Battle of the Windmill – German invasion of Russia during WWIIRebuilding attempts – Stalin’s 5 yr. PlanDrunken party – Teheran Conference (Stalin sat down for the first time with the west)
54Utopia The perfect place. The animals believe that they have created heaven on EarthSoon that hope is destroyed and replace by something worse than the originalAnimal Farm is an anti-utopian novel.Look at the character Benjamin to understand Orwell’s views on utopias.
55The coming of the revolution Great unrest among the people grew against the Czar.One opposition group were the Bolsheviks led by Lenin and TrotskyLENINTrotsky
56“Bloody Sunday” *January 22, 1905 *Thousands of unarmed striking workers marched to the Czar’s palace to ask for reforms*Soldiers fired into the crowd and killed/wounded hundreds of marchersA series of strikes and unrest followed
57In 1914, Russia joined England and France against Germany in World War One. They suffered tremendous lossesThe Czar was fatally weakened at homeTsar Nicolas II
58The Revolution of 1917The Revolutionaries overthrew the Czar in March of 1917 and, after another revolution in October, the Bolsheviks-led by Lenin-took control of the Russian Government.The Bolsheviks spent the next few years fighting a civil warLenin was the leader and Trotsky was his top military man
59Revolutionary Results * Peasants forced to give everything to government* Government took control of Russian industry* Secret police force set up (KGB)* Russia withdrew from World War I
60During this time another man was quietly gaining power behind the scenes. His name was Josef Stalin. Stalin in 1917
61While Lenin and Trotsky concentrated on the War, Stalin began to take over the complex machinery of the Communist PartyStalin knew that Trotsky had made many enemies and he used this knowledge to form alliances to serve him in the future.
62Power Struggle between Stalin and Trotsky * Stalin won-he worked against Trotsky behind the scenes* Stalin took control and became a dictator
63Comparing Stalin and Trotsky Charismatic-Great CommunicatorIdealist-Believed in “True Marxism”ConceitedBored by Politics, Interested in “Philosophical”STALINQuiet, “Brooding”“Hands-On” Worker, Excellent at Organization“Gruff”, “Lower-Class”Great at Politics-Knew how to Manipulate System
64Stalin’s Five Year Plan * Small peasant farms combined into collective farms controlled by governmentRapid expansion of heavy industryPeasants who opposed communal farming were punished - sent to prison labor camps in Siberia
65TRANSITION OF POWERThe Bolsheviks won the war in 1921, but Lenin had become fatally ill and it was soon apparent that he would dieLenin had seen how powerful Stalin had become and put it in his will that Stalin was not to have a “leadership role” after his death.
66Lenin Dies in 1923 Stalin and his allies have his will thrown out Stalin uses his alliances to defeat Trotsky
67Stalin ridiculed Trotsky’s policies including his ideas of “permanent revolution” and “collectivization” of agricultureStalin would later incorporate these ideas and claim credit for himselfEventually Trotsky was forced into exile and in 1940 he was assassinated in Mexico at Stalin’s command.Stalin assumed complete, totalitarian control and immediately began to “purge” his former allies.
68In 1940, both countries invaded Poland. Stalin would have thousands of his political “enemies” murdered, and his policies would kill millions of RussiansIn 1938, Stalin entered into a Non-Aggression Pact with Adolf Hitler in order to stay out of World War Two.In 1940, both countries invaded Poland.PACT SIGNING 1938
69The USSR in World War Two Hitler betrayed Stalin and invaded The USSR in 1941Stalin’s purges on the military enabled the Nazis to almost conquer the USSRStalin joined the allies at the Tehran Conference of 1943Churchill, Roosevelt andStalin at Yalta in 1945
70“IF YOU WANT A PICTURE OF THE FUTURE, IMAGINE A BOOT STAMPING ON A HUMAN FACE-FOREVER”- George Orwell, 1984