5 Karl Marxmid 1800s writes a number of significant texts including das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto.Founder of the notion of ‘Marxism’, the foundation of Communism, which outlines the need for the proletariat to rebel in order to shift power from a central state and into the hands of the working class.“The workers have nothing to lose but their chains. Workers of the world, unite.”
7 Vladimir LeninLeader of the Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917 and subsequently first leader of the USSR.Negotiates a peace with Germany at the conclusion of WWI and organises the transfer of power to the soviets (workers’ councils)Becomes the first leader to put Marx’s theories into practice
9 Tsar Nicholas II Last of the Romanov Tsars of Russia Responsible for significant mismanagement of internal affairs, leading to hardship for the masses.Surpresses a revolution in 1905, but is forced to grant some constitutional reforms.Uses military force to quell uprisingsLeads Russia into WWI and is ultimately forced to abdicate in 1917Executed, along with his wife and children, in 1918.
11 Josef Stalin Joined Lenin and the Bolsheviks in 1903 Effectively assumed control of the USSR after the death of Lenin in 1924.Won an ideological clash with Leon Trotsky by 1927.Established five-year plans to collectivise industry and agriculture.
12 StalinEliminated all real and imagined opposition in the Great Purge Assumed the role of dictator during the 1930s and ruled with the support of a succession of secret police forces.
14 Leon Trotsky Bolshevik revolutionary in 1917 with Lenin and Stalin Exiled in 1929 after losing an ideological power struggle with Stalin over the need for ‘worldwide (permanent) revolution’.Settled in Mexico and eventually assassinated with an ice pick at Stalin’s instigation.
15 Stalin v TrotskyStalin’s view was that socialism should be built and consolidated within individual countries.“The export of revolution is nonsense. Every country makes its own revolution if it wants to, and if it does not there will be no revolution.”In Trotsky’s view, a proletarian revolution leading to a socialist society could not be achieved in isolation, so it would be necessary to spark off further revolutions throughout Europe and ultimately worldwide.An uncompromising idealist.
16 The Allegory1917 Russian Revolution was brought about by the hardship being experienced by the proletariat due to the inadequacies of Nicholas II and the struggle of WWI.The animals oust Mr Jones after he and his farmers forget to feed the animals.
17 The AllegoryThe Battle of the Cowshed - Jones’ last ditch attempt to retake the farm.The Russian Civil War occurs when western capitalist governments send soldiers to try and remove the Bolsheviks from power.
18 The Allegory Stalin v Trotsky Napoleon v Snowball Note the significance of the names used. Snowball hopes the rebellion will ‘snowball’ beyond the borders of Animal Farm.
19 The AllegoryWhen Lenin dies, his embalmed body was placed on display in Red Square.Karl Marx’s tomb in London also has a bust of his likeness adorning it.Old Major’s skull is placed on display on a tree stump.
20 The AllegoryTrotsky’s idea for the Soviet five year plans is adopted by Stalin as his own following Trotsky’s expulsion.The windmill, and Napoleon’s assertion that it is his idea following the exile of Snowball, is a symbol of these plans.
21 The AllegoryThe Russian Orthodox Church is forced underground, but is ultimately readmitted by Stalin to give false hope to the masses.Moses the raven leaves the farm for a while before returning to talk of ‘Sugarcandy Mountain’.
22 The AllegoryStalin forces confessions from his political enemies and has them executed following public trials. The Great Purge.Napoleon’s executions as an instrument of fear.
23 The AllegoryThe Molotov-Ribentropp pact of 1939, where Stalin and Hitler agreed to non-agression in the lead up to WWII. This was later betrayed by Hitler in 1941 when he invaded the USSR. The USSR won eventually but at great cost.Napoleon works with Mr Frederick, who eventually betrays Animal Farm and destroys the windmill.
24 The AllegoryThe uneducated working class labour under strenuous and increasingly difficult circumstances in the hope that their work would result in a more prosperous life.Boxer is an unfailing servant who is ultimately sacrificed when he is of no further use.
25 The Allegory NKVD (later KGB) Squealer The dogs Pravda - the Soviet newspaper designed to give the impression the country was better off than it was
26 Animal Farm and Encountering Conflict Ideological conflict is central – causes and consequences, and the inevitability of conflict due to irreconcilable belief systemsIntellectual conflict – consider the use of words and the power of manipulationRacial and religious conflictMoral and ethical conflictPhysical conflictWhat else?