Karl Marx Invented Communism His vision– Everyone would have what they needed, and no one citizen would possess more than another. 1848– Published an influential pamphlet called the Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx believed that the private ownership of land must be abolished believed in “Communal” way of life where everyone shares in prosperity Dies before Russian Revolution
Communism Form of government that has a classless society Everyone is equal; no rich and no poor The Bolsheviks, or revolutionaries, adopted this idea.
Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks - an organization formed by the revolting people, or revolutionaries, of Russia. Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin.
Vladimir Lenin Lenin adopted Marx’s ideas. He believed that the bourgeoisie (middle class with money) exploited the workers and must therefore be overthrown.
Vladimir Lenin: Rise to Power One of the leaders of the Bolshevik party since its formation in 1903 Led the Soviets to power in October, 1917 (The October Revolution) Tried to manipulate all movement and communication within the country by taking control of the railroads and telegraph lines –(This would secure state authority for the Bolsheviks.) Forbade the holding of private property
Vladimir Lenin Understands the emotional impact of simple, powerful slogans: “Workers of the world unite!” “Land, bread, and peace for everyone!”
Vladimir Lenin Changes Russia’s name to the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) When Lenin died, there was a power struggle between Trotsky and Stalin.
Lenin’s Death Lenin died in 1924, leaving the Bolsheviks leaderless. This caused a power struggle between two other revolutionaries, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin.
Leon Trotsky A revolutionary who was popular with the people Wanted to make life better for all by industrializing Russia
Leon Trotsky Pure communist, followed Marx Wanted to improve life for all in Russia Favors world revolution
Leon Trotsky Trotsky was a brilliant public speaker With Lenin, he succeeded in overthrowing the government in October 1917. Lenin was the President, and Trotsky the Commissar for Foreign Affairs
Joseph Stalin Not a skilled speaker and not educated like Trotsky Does not follow Marx’s ideas Cares for power, kills all who oppose him Uses KGB, allows church, and propagandized
Propaganda Department of Stalin’s government Work for Stalin to support his image Lies to convince the people to follow Stalin
Joseph Stalin Stalin continually opposes Trotsky Craves power, willing to kill for it Benefits from the fact that education is controlled Secures his power base, and engineers the permanent exile of his adversary, Trotsky, in 1929
Josef Stalin Lied to people to gain support People believed his lies and promises, so he beat Trotsky in the power struggle Stalin had Trotsky exiled from Russia. He feared Trotsky would try to regain power, so he eventually had him killed.
Stalin, cont’d… Stalin grew more and more powerful over the years. He began eliminating anyone who opposed him. He set up a secret police to carry out his deadly orders.
NKVD (KGB) Stalin’s secret police Killed, tortured, starved, intimidated anyone Stalin ordered Completely loyal to Stalin Not really police, but forced to support Stalin Eventually, they chase Trotsky away
Stalin’s Rule Stalin became so greedy, he lost the original vision of the revolutionaries Millions of innocent people were killed under his rule Ironically, he made Russia worse off than it had been before the Czar Stalin became known as one of the most ruthless dictators in history, comparable to Hitler
Civil War From 1918 –1921 there was civil war in Russia Foreign countries including Britain, France, Poland and USA were alarmed at the spread of communism but the Red Army (the Bolsheviks) led by Trotsky proved successful