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The Russian Revolution and the Major Players

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1 The Russian Revolution and the Major Players 1905-1917

2 Pre-Revolution Russia had been oppressed for centuries by tyrannical czars (Russian Kings) Ended with Nicholas II. From the beginning of Nicholas’ reign he failed; Coronation-- hundreds were killed because of poor crowd control. Poor harvest in the late 1890’s led to civil unrest, Many without enough food or wages. Wasn’t ready for the Japan-Russo war


4 Russian Revolutions Revolutions were actually several protests (people revolting) against the Czar over a 12 year span, finally ending with the October Revolution of 1917. It ended hundreds of years of oppression from the Czarist Regimes. It paved the way for the totalitarian communist governments to exist for the next 70 years and created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)

5 Background: Causes of Revolution
Repressive and aristocratic regimes of the Romanov dynasty: Nicholas II Severe economic and social crisis in Russia Russia in WWI: Unpopular war, many Russians were being killed. Corruption in Government Numbers of Poor and Rich

6 Causes Continued Revolutionary Middle Class
Nicholas II refused to allow any type of government reform and refused to let go of total control New Ideas of Marxist Communism in Europe A new leader of the visionary Revolutionary class named Vladmir Lenin

7 Due to Russia’s economic problems, the lower classes looked for an answer.
No social classes! Wealth to be shared among more people!

8 Karl Marx and Communism
Marxist Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production (farms, factories, etc.) Wealth to be shared among the society

9 Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov or Lenin
Supporter of Marx’s ideas of Communism and wanted to overthrow the Czar Weak Government paved the way for Lenin to rise to power. Lenin appealed to the masses “Peace, Land, Bread ” Led group known as the Bolsheviks (Social Democrats) in the revolution. First leader of the new communist Russia Died of a stroke after only a few years in power Lenin

10 Leon Trotsky founded “Red Army”, or MRC (military revolutionary council) in 1917.
MRC was the group that actually removed of the Duma (Russian legislature), completing the Revolution Trotsky allowed Lenin to lead in the following years but was an vital member of the communist government. Later he would battle for power with Stalin after Lenin’s death.

11 October Revolution October 25 1917
Trotsky’s “red army” took over the government in St. Petersburg Lenin seized power immediately with Trotsky and Joseph Stalin by his side. First 2 acts: End Russian involvement in WWI. Give peasants land. “private ownership shall be abolished forever”.

12 Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel”
Took control of the government after Lenin died of a stroke 1924 Lenin had actually wanted Trotsky to lead. He distrusted Stalin. Stalin was popular with the people. He seemed like a regular guy and spoke in a way that people could understand. Stalin’s first policies were  his Five Year Plans and the Collective Farms.

13 Trotsky Flees the Country
Stalin fears Trotsky will take his power Uses secret police to threaten and attempt to assassinate Trotsky Trotsky flees the country and hides in various countries Tries to work against Stalin from “outside” Eventually moves to Mexico

14 Five Year Plans: Modernize the Soviet Union in five years no matter what the cost. It caused massive shortages and suffering for all.

15 Collective Farming: All farmers are forced to give up their own farms and work and farm in groups. It was a huge failure.

16 The Secret Police: Terror police whose job it was to kill and eliminate all people thought to oppose Stalin.

17 Propaganda: Designed to influence and control peoples beliefs and information flow. Stalin used it and when he took over he forced it on people everywhere.

18 The U.S.S.R. : , The Union of Soviet Socialists Republic was formed to unite all Russian people under one government.

19 Trotsky in Mexico: Leon Trotsky was hunted down by Stalin’s agents and killed in his hotel room in Mexico City with an ice pick in 1940.

20 Joseph Stalin

21 Leon Trotsky

22 Karl Marx Vladimir Lenin

23 End of slide show. KEEP YOUR NOTES!

24 George Orwell British Author (Famous for: Animal Farm, 1984)
Admired Marx and to some extent Lenin Believed in some parts of communist theory, but not others Disliked Joseph Stalin Believed that Stalin and warped ideas of communism into totalitarianism Expressed his views through allegorical writing

25 Eric Blair (George Orwell)
Animal Farm 1945

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