Presentation on theme: "The Russian Revolution and the Major Players"— Presentation transcript:
1The Russian Revolution and the Major Players 1905-1917
2Pre-RevolutionRussia had been oppressed for centuries by tyrannical czars (Russian Kings)Ended with Nicholas II. From the beginning of Nicholas’ reign he failed;Coronation-- hundreds were killed because of poor crowd control.Poor harvest in the late 1890’s led to civil unrest, Many without enough food or wages.Wasn’t ready for the Japan-Russo war
4Russian RevolutionsRevolutions were actually several protests (people revolting) against the Czar over a 12 year span, finally ending with the October Revolution of 1917.It ended hundreds of years of oppression from the Czarist Regimes.It paved the way for the totalitarian communist governments to exist for the next 70 years and created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
5Background: Causes of Revolution Repressive and aristocratic regimes of the Romanov dynasty: Nicholas IISevere economic and social crisis in RussiaRussia in WWI: Unpopular war, many Russians were being killed.Corruption in GovernmentNumbers of Poor and Rich
6Causes Continued Revolutionary Middle Class Nicholas II refused to allow any type of government reform and refused to let go of total controlNew Ideas of Marxist Communism in EuropeA new leader of the visionary Revolutionary class named Vladmir Lenin
7Due to Russia’s economic problems, the lower classes looked for an answer. No social classes!Wealth to be shared among more people!
8Karl Marx and Communism Marxist Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production (farms, factories, etc.)Wealth to be shared among the society
9Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov or Lenin Supporter of Marx’s ideas of Communism and wanted to overthrow the CzarWeak Government paved the way for Lenin to rise to power.Lenin appealed to the masses “Peace, Land, Bread ”Led group known as the Bolsheviks (Social Democrats) in the revolution.First leader of the new communist RussiaDied of a stroke after only a few years in powerLenin
10Leon Trotsky founded “Red Army”, or MRC (military revolutionary council) in 1917. MRC was the group that actually removed of the Duma (Russian legislature), completing the RevolutionTrotsky allowed Lenin to lead in the following years but was an vital member of the communist government.Later he would battle for power with Stalin after Lenin’s death.
11October Revolution October 25 1917 Trotsky’s “red army” took over the government in St. PetersburgLenin seized power immediately with Trotsky and Joseph Stalin by his side.First 2 acts:End Russian involvement in WWI.Give peasants land. “private ownership shall be abolished forever”.
12Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel” Took control of the government after Lenin died of a stroke 1924Lenin had actually wanted Trotsky to lead. He distrusted Stalin.Stalin was popular with the people. He seemed like a regular guy and spoke in a way that people could understand.Stalin’s first policies were his Five Year Plans and the Collective Farms.
13Trotsky Flees the Country Stalin fears Trotsky will take his powerUses secret police to threaten and attempt to assassinate TrotskyTrotsky flees the country and hides in various countriesTries to work against Stalin from “outside”Eventually moves to Mexico
14Five Year Plans:Modernize the Soviet Union in five years no matter what the cost. It caused massive shortages and suffering for all.
15Collective Farming: All farmers are forced to give up their own farms and work and farm in groups. It was a huge failure.
16The Secret Police: Terror police whose job it was to kill and eliminate all people thought to oppose Stalin.
17Propaganda: Designed to influence and control peoples beliefs and information flow. Stalin used it and when he took over he forced it on people everywhere.
18The U.S.S.R. : , The Union of Soviet Socialists Republic was formed to unite all Russian people under one government.
19Trotsky in Mexico: Leon Trotsky was hunted down by Stalin’s agents and killed in his hotel room in Mexico City with an ice pick in 1940.
24George Orwell British Author (Famous for: Animal Farm, 1984) Admired Marx and to some extent LeninBelieved in some parts of communist theory, but not othersDisliked Joseph StalinBelieved that Stalin and warped ideas of communism into totalitarianismExpressed his views through allegorical writing