2The SettingThe story is set on a farm in England. The historical events referred to in the allegory actually took place in Russia in the first half of the twentieth century. By setting the fable in his own country, however, Orwell makes it clear that his themes are universal. What happened in Russia could just as easily happen in anyone’s backyard.
3The Characters Mr. Jones – Owns the Manor Farm Is a drunkard who mismanages his farmRepresents the last Czar of RussiaOld Major –Is a wise and benevolent prize boar.Is highly respected by the animals.Is a visionary dreamer and philosopherIs the author of the Beast of EnglandDies three days after revealing his dreamRepresents Marx and Lenin.
4Snowball-Is a great planner and organizer.Speaks wellIs considered by the others not to have depth of character.Tries to implement Old Major’s ideas.Represents TrotskyNapoleon –Is a large fierce-looking boarIs not a talker but is used to getting his own wayIs secretive, ruthless, and cunningIs considered by others to have depth of characterRepresents Stalin
5Squealer – is a small fat pig with twinkling eyes and round cheeks, who moves nimbly and has a shrill voice.Is a brilliant and persuasive talker.Is Napoleon’s spokesman and propagandist.Boxer – is a tall, strong cart horse.Is loyal and hard-working.Is well-meaning but not very intelligent.Coins the slogans “I will work harder” and “If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right.”Represents the unthinking working class.
6Benjamin – is a donkeyIs the worst-tempered and the oldest animal on the farmIs a loner who keeps his opinions to himselfIs a skeptical of changeNever laughsIs a hard worker who never shirks his duties but never volunteersKnows how to read but says there is nothing worth readingSays “Donkeys live a long time”Is devoted to Boxer
7Clover – is a hard-working mare Is not very intelligentIs loving and maternal toward the other animalsIs the only animal whose thoughts are revealedMollie – is a vain white mare.Enjoys pretty ribbons, sugar, and human attentionIs the only animal to leave the farm willinglyMay symbolize the White Russians, who posed the Red Army during the civil war
8Muriel – is a white goatIs a good readerMoses – is a ravenWas Mr. Jones’s petFlees with Jones but is later welcomed back by the pigsIs given beer by the pigs, even though he does not work.Soothes the animals with his story of Sugarcandy MountainRepresents the Russian Orthodox Church and religious institutions in general
9Minimus – is a pig who composes songs and poems honoring Napoleon. The sheep – bleat whatever slogan they are taught by the pigs.Represent the unthinking massesThe Dogs – are vicious killers who protect the pigs and do their bidding.Represent Stalin’s secret police.Mr. Pilkington – owns the neighboring Foxwood Farm.Spends too much time fishing and hunting to run his farm efficientlyRepresents England and the Allies
10Mr. Frederick –Owns the neighboring Pinchfield FarmCheats Napoleon and leads a disastrous attack on the farm.Represents Germany.Mr. Whymper-Is a lawyer who serves as an intermediary between Napoleon and the outside world.Is sly and self-serving.
11Chapters 1 and 2 Vocabulary Ensconced – settled comfortablyTushes – tusksKnacker – horse slaughtererTrotter – pig’s footDissentients – those who disagreeMangel-wurzels – large beetsVivacious – livelyExpounded – explainedGambolled – skipped playfullyScullery – kitchen storage area
12Plot OutlineChapter 1 – Old Major reveals his dream. The animals learn Beasts of England.Chapter 2 – Old Major dies. The animals drive out Mr. Jones. “The Manor” Farm becomes “Animal Farm.” The Seven Commandments of Animalism are written by the pigs.Chapter 3 – The animals run the farm. Snowball organizes committees. Napoleon educates the puppies.
13Chapter IVMr. Jones tries to recapture the farm, but he and the other farmers are driven off in the Battle of Cowshed
14Chapter VSnowball proposes a windmill. Napoleon signals the dogs to drive Snowball away.Napoleon cancels Sunday debates and announces that the windmill will be built after all.
15Chapter VINapoleon announces trade with the humansThe pigs move into the farmhouseNapoleon blames Snowball for the collapse of the windmill
16Chapter VIIThe hens protest when Napoleon decides to sell their eggs.Squealer tells the animals that Snowball was in league with Mr. Jones from the start.The dogs kill Napoleon’s enemies and some self-confesses traitors.Napoleon abolishes the singing of Beasts of England.
17Chapter VIIIMr. Frederick pays for the pile of timber with forged banknotes.Mr. Frederick and the other farmers attack the farm and destroy the windmill but are driven off by the animals in the Battle of the Windmill.The pigs celebrate their “victory” by getting drunk.
18Chapter IXBoxer collapses and is taken away by the slaughtererSquealer says that Boxer died in the hospitalThe pigs hold a memorial banquet for themselves in Boxer’s honor.
19Chapter XFew animals remain who remember life before the rebellion.The pigs walk on hind legs, carry whips, and become indistinguishable from humans.“Animal Farm” becomes “The Manor Farm.”