2. Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
“Powder Keg” of Europe Two alliance system in existence French unhappiness at the loss of Alsace & Lorraine (F-P War) Arms race between Germany and France Naval rivalry between Britain and Germany Austria and Russia competing for influence in the Balkans Germany attempts to gain colonies annoying and frightening Fr., Br., R.
Four Steps to War Austria Declares War against Serbia – July 28, 1914 #1
A. July 5 – The Blank Check Pay to A-H From G. Still Part of Step #1 “You can rely on us”
B. July 23 – The Ultimatum If you touch me, I’ll… If you make a move, I’ll If you hit that little feller, I’ll… If you strike my friend, I’ll.. If you hit him, I’ll… Hi there, if you don’t… Serbia Austria Russia Germany France Great Britain
C. July 25 – Serbia sends a reply and rejects part of the ultimatum The sentence that caused a war 6. The [Serbian] Government considers it its duty as a matter of course to begin an investigation against all those persons who have participated in the outrage of June 28th and who are in its territory. As far as the cooperation in this investigation of specially delegated officials of the [Austro-Hungarian] Government is concerned, this cannot be accepted, as this is a violation of the constitution and of criminal procedure. -- Serbian Response to the Ultimatum, 25 July, 1914 The Power Behind Austria (at the ultimatum steps). “I don’t quite like his attitude. Somebody Must be backing him.” Serbia Austria Russia
D. July 28 – A-H Declares War Interestingly, the Kaiser thought the Serbs reply was SO conciliatory, that after reading it, he wrote: “the reply amounted to a capitulation in the humblest style, and with it there disappeared all reason for war.” Austrians look unfair, unreasonable, and war-mad to rest of the world
Four Steps to War Russia Mobilizes A. Willy-Nicky Letters July 29, 1914 An unjust war has been declared on a weak country. The anger in Russia shared fully by me is enormous. I foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure forced upon me and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war. To try and avoid such a calamity as a European war, I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far.-Nicky (July 29, 1914, telegram) #2 Kaiser Wilhem II Tsar Nicholas II
B. Despite the correspondence with Wilhelm, Nicholas begins a partial mobilization - July 29, 1914 C.Russia begins general mobilization – Generals can’t mobilize against A-H without mobilizing against Germany too! –July 30-31, 1914 Still Step #2
Four Steps to War Schlieffen Plan General Alfred von Schlieffen Deal with a potential 2-Front War France is weak => Defeat 1 st 90% of the German Army Based on assumption that Russia would be slow to mobilize #3
Wilhelm needed to know France’s Plan Aid Russia? Or Not? Germany issues Russia and France and ultimatum July 31, 1914 Still Step #3
A. Russian Ultimatum Demobilize – get off the German border B. French Ultimatum Stay neutral – don’t get involved Still Step #3
C. The problem with the Schlieffen Plan Requires Germany to invade through neutral Belgium to get to Paris quickly Still Step #3 Belgium This is a huge risk
C. The problem with the Schlieffen Plan continued Treaty of London 1839 – Britain and Prussia Guaranteed Belgian neutrality But, there’s no Plan B Russia is mobilizing too fast Still Step #3
Four Steps to War England joins in German gamble - Belgium Britain upholds Treaty of 1839 #4 “ The greatest war of modern times, and perhaps in the whole history of the human race, was begun by Germany using the crime of a schoolboy as an excuse ” The Great War -the Standard History (1914) [A British patriotic magazine published weekly]
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
New Jobs for Women Role of women in W. European culture changed Nearly 65 million men mobilized Women needed to fill civil service and industrial sector jobs
Traditional Male Jobs Industrial labor with munitions and chemicals Train conductors Secretaries Bus drivers Bank tellers Fire fighters Construction workers Female chemists and mathematicians conducted military related experiments Increase in Britain by 1 million during the war
Paramilitary Organizations Support soldiers at the front 40,000 nurses “Voluntary Aid Detachment” 80,000 women cooks, drivers, mechanics “ Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, Royal Naval Services, Women’s Royal Air Force 113,000 in Women’s Land Army Secured supplies for soldiers Aided farming families
Post War for Women Women demobilized to make room for returning men Change in attitudes regarding place in society Having worn uniforms/overalls in factories pants Desire financial freedom Move away from parents home Gained right to vote
Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!
American Poster Common Objectives 1.Recruitment of soldiers, either through a draft or voluntary enlistment
American Poster Common Tools in Wartime Propaganda Demonization: Portraying the enemy as purely evil, menacing, murderous and aggressive. Emotional Appeal: Play on people’s emotions -- FEAR
American Poster Common Objectives 2.Financing the war effort w/ war bonds (loans from citizens to the government) – or new taxes
American Poster Common Tools in Wartime Propaganda Name Calling: Encourage hatred of the enemy; reinforce negative stereotypes Evocative Symbols appeals to emotions –flags, statues, mothers, children, enemy uniforms
Australian Poster Common Objectives 3.Eliminating dissent and unifying the country behind the war effort
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 19141922 Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197,000500 Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800