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1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Ms. Snyder CCHS.

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Presentation on theme: "1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Ms. Snyder CCHS."— Presentation transcript:


2 1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Ms. Snyder CCHS

3 Differing Viewpoints  “Family Feud”  “Fall of the Eagles”  “The War to End All Wars”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”

4 Causes of the War

5 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

6 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

7 The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]

8 Europe in 1914

9 2. Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

10 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries

11 4. Aggressive Nationalism

12 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

13 “Powder Keg” of Europe  Two alliance system in existence  French unhappiness at the loss of Alsace & Lorraine (F-P War)  Arms race between Germany and France  Naval rivalry between Britain and Germany  Austria and Russia competing for influence in the Balkans  Germany attempts to gain colonies annoying and frightening Fr., Br., R.

14 The “Spark”

15 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

16 The Assassination: Sarajevo Video

17 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

18 Four Steps to War Austria Declares War against Serbia – July 28, 1914 #1

19 A. July 5 – The Blank Check Pay to A-H From G. Still Part of Step #1 “You can rely on us”

20 B. July 23 – The Ultimatum If you touch me, I’ll… If you make a move, I’ll If you hit that little feller, I’ll… If you strike my friend, I’ll.. If you hit him, I’ll… Hi there, if you don’t… Serbia Austria Russia Germany France Great Britain

21 C. July 25 – Serbia sends a reply and rejects part of the ultimatum The sentence that caused a war 6. The [Serbian] Government considers it its duty as a matter of course to begin an investigation against all those persons who have participated in the outrage of June 28th and who are in its territory. As far as the cooperation in this investigation of specially delegated officials of the [Austro-Hungarian] Government is concerned, this cannot be accepted, as this is a violation of the constitution and of criminal procedure. -- Serbian Response to the Ultimatum, 25 July, 1914 The Power Behind Austria (at the ultimatum steps). “I don’t quite like his attitude. Somebody Must be backing him.” Serbia Austria Russia

22 D. July 28 – A-H Declares War  Interestingly, the Kaiser thought the Serbs reply was SO conciliatory, that after reading it, he wrote: “the reply amounted to a capitulation in the humblest style, and with it there disappeared all reason for war.” Austrians look unfair, unreasonable, and war-mad to rest of the world

23 Four Steps to War Russia Mobilizes A. Willy-Nicky Letters July 29, 1914 An unjust war has been declared on a weak country. The anger in Russia shared fully by me is enormous. I foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure forced upon me and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war. To try and avoid such a calamity as a European war, I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far.-Nicky (July 29, 1914, telegram) #2 Kaiser Wilhem II Tsar Nicholas II

24 B. Despite the correspondence with Wilhelm, Nicholas begins a partial mobilization - July 29, 1914 C.Russia begins general mobilization – Generals can’t mobilize against A-H without mobilizing against Germany too! –July 30-31, 1914 Still Step #2

25 Four Steps to War Schlieffen Plan  General Alfred von Schlieffen  Deal with a potential 2-Front War  France is weak => Defeat 1 st  90% of the German Army  Based on assumption that Russia would be slow to mobilize #3

26 The Schlieffen Plan

27 Wilhelm needed to know France’s Plan  Aid Russia? Or Not?  Germany issues Russia and France and ultimatum July 31, 1914 Still Step #3

28 A. Russian Ultimatum Demobilize – get off the German border B. French Ultimatum Stay neutral – don’t get involved Still Step #3

29 C. The problem with the Schlieffen Plan  Requires Germany to invade through neutral Belgium to get to Paris quickly Still Step #3 Belgium This is a huge risk

30 C. The problem with the Schlieffen Plan continued  Treaty of London 1839 – Britain and Prussia  Guaranteed Belgian neutrality  But, there’s no Plan B  Russia is mobilizing too fast Still Step #3

31 D. August 1 – G. Declares war on Russia

32 August 3 – G. Declares war on France

33 F. August 3-4 – Germany invades Belgium

34 Four Steps to War England joins in  German gamble - Belgium  Britain upholds Treaty of 1839 #4 “ The greatest war of modern times, and perhaps in the whole history of the human race, was begun by Germany using the crime of a schoolboy as an excuse ” The Great War -the Standard History (1914) [A British patriotic magazine published weekly]

35 August 4 – Britain declares war on Germany

36 “The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.” (Sir Edward Grey)

37 Who’s To Blame?

38 German Atrocities in Belgium

39 Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!  Home by Christmas!  No major war in 50 years!  Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!

40 Recruitment Posters

41 A Young Australian Recruit

42 Recruits of the Central Powers Austro- Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

43 New French Recruits

44 A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier


46 Effects of the War on the “Home Front”

47 Mobilizing for Total War  Total War  War demands sacrifice from ALL citizens  Governments forced to exert control over the economy  To ensure all war needs are met  Rationing

48 Mobilizing for Total War  Rationing  Certain goods only in small amounts  Food fuel, rubber, metal

49 Mobilizing for Total War  Victory Gardens  Enables all food grown by farms to go to war front

50 Mobilizing for Total War  Conscription  The draft  Raise a large army  Men 17-60 unable to fight were expected to help the gov’t (G)  Men from colonies

51 Women and the War Effort

52 New Jobs for Women  Role of women in W. European culture changed  Nearly 65 million men mobilized  Women needed to fill civil service and industrial sector jobs

53 Traditional Male Jobs  Industrial labor with munitions and chemicals  Train conductors  Secretaries  Bus drivers  Bank tellers  Fire fighters  Construction workers  Female chemists and mathematicians conducted military related experiments  Increase in Britain by 1 million during the war

54 Munitions Workers

55 French Women Factory Workers

56 German Women Factory Workers

57 Paramilitary Organizations  Support soldiers at the front  40,000 nurses “Voluntary Aid Detachment”  80,000 women cooks, drivers, mechanics “ Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, Royal Naval Services, Women’s Royal Air Force  113,000 in Women’s Land Army  Secured supplies for soldiers  Aided farming families

58 Working in the Fields

59 A Woman Ambulance Driver

60 Red Cross Nurses

61 Women in the Army Auxiliary

62 Russian Women Soldiers

63 Post War for Women  Women demobilized to make room for returning men  Change in attitudes regarding place in society  Having worn uniforms/overalls in factories  pants  Desire financial freedom  Move away from parents home  Gained right to vote

64 Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!

65 Posters: Wartime Propaganda

66 American Poster Common Objectives 1.Recruitment of soldiers, either through a draft or voluntary enlistment

67 American Poster Common Tools in Wartime Propaganda Demonization: Portraying the enemy as purely evil, menacing, murderous and aggressive. Emotional Appeal: Play on people’s emotions -- FEAR

68 American Poster Common Objectives 2.Financing the war effort w/ war bonds (loans from citizens to the government) – or new taxes

69 American Poster Common Tools in Wartime Propaganda Name Calling: Encourage hatred of the enemy; reinforce negative stereotypes Evocative Symbols appeals to emotions –flags, statues, mothers, children, enemy uniforms

70 Australian Poster Common Objectives 3.Eliminating dissent and unifying the country behind the war effort

71 German Poster Think of Your Children!

72 Common Objectives 4.Conservation of resources – food, oil, metals – necessary to wage war

73 Common Tools in Wartime Propaganda Humor or Caricatures Humor to promote war effort, enemy is a butt of the joke

74 Common Objectives 5.Participation in home-front organizations to support the war effort

75 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

76 A Multi-Front War

77 The Western Front  Germany, France, Britain and Belgium  475 miles long from Switzerland to North Sea  “Race to the Sea” – Each side trying to outflank the other

78 The Western Front  War of Attrition = a struggle in which you harm your opponent in a lot of small ways, so that they become gradually weaker

79 1 st Battle of the Marne – Sept 5-12, 1914 Paris Marne River

80  600 Taxis  Allied counter-attack  Prevented fall of Paris  Forced German retreat  Schlieffen Plan isn’t going to work  Set the stage for “trench warfare”


82 Trench Warfare


84 “No Man’s Land”

85 Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.

86 The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

87 War Is  !!

88 Sacrifices in War

89 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

90 The Eastern Front

91 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915

92 Turkish Cavalry in Palestine

93 T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18

94 T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19

95 The Tsar with General Brusilov

96 The “Colonial” Fronts

97 Sikh British Soldiers in India

98 Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]

99 Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

100 Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916

101 America Joins the Allies

102 The Sinking of the Lusitania

103 The Zimmerman Telegram

104 The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!

105 Americans in the Trenches

106 The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology

107 French Renault Tank

108 British Tank at Ypres

109 U-Boats

110 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

111 The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

112 The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.

113 Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

114 Looking for the “Red Baron?”

115 The Zeppelin

116 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

117 Poison Gas Machine Gun

118 “Art” of World War I

119 “A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918

120 “Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917

121 “Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914

122 “Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918

123 “Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917

124 German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918

125 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

126 11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!

127 9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead

128 The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died

129 World War I Casualties

130 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

131 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 19141922 Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197,000500 Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800

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