Presentation on theme: "1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War."— Presentation transcript:
: The World at War : The World at War
Differing Viewpoints “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
Causes of the War
1. Alliances! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
Europe in 1914
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
4. Aggressive Nationalism
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & HIS FAMILY
The Assassination: Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip
Who’s To Blame?
German Atrocities in Belgium
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
A Young Australian Recruit
New French Recruits
Women and the War Effort
Financing the War
Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
Red Cross Nurses
Women in the Army Auxiliary
Russian Women Soldiers
Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!
Posters: Wartime Propagand
Financing the War
German Poster Think of Your Children!
The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.
Battle of Somme –7/ 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
The Eastern Front
The Battle of Gallipoli, 1915
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
The “Colonial” Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China
U.S.A Joins the Allies
1. Sinking of the Lusitania
2. Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming! Doughboys The Yanks Are Coming! Doughboys
Americans in the Trenches
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
1. French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
3. Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
4. The Zeppelin
5. Flame Throwers 6. Grenade Launchers
8. Poison Gas 9. Machine Gun
“Art” of World War I
“A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
“Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
“Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
“Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
“Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Treaty of Versailles Signed Ended WW I: Treaty of Versailles Signed June 28 th, 1919 a)All of the 4 European Empires Reduced in Size b)New Countries Created in Europe c) Ottoman Empire-Divided into new countries & Mandated by Britain & France d) Arabs – Wanted Independence German a) Empire Lost Territory b) Made Repay War Reparations c) Made Reduce Size of Army / Navy d) “War Guilt Clause”-Germany made admit to starting WW I
Result of Treaty Weaknesses / Problems of the Treaty of Versailles Left Germany with a strong desire for Revenge Many German people found themselves in non-German nations Idea of Self-Determination violated-Arab countries became mandates When boundaries for countries were drawn up different ethic groups that did not get along together were clustered into one country for example: Iraq
Changes to the Map of Europe 1. German Empire: Reduced in size 2. From the Russian Empire: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia formed 3. Austrian–Hungarian Empire Split into New Countries: Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungarian, Czechoslovakia 4. Ottoman Empire Split into New Countries: Turkey, Syria, Iraq & Tran Jordan
Effects of WW1 Millions Dead Map of Europe changed forever all 4-Empires collapsed European Economies Destroyed Major European Cities in Ruins Influenza Virus Spread (birds) End of Economic Opportunities for Women & African Americans USA becomes A Creditor Nation Postwar Recession: Slow Down in the Economy Fear of the Spread of Communism (Red Scare) League of nations Formed in Europe
WW1 Changes U.S Role in the World Became Richest Country in the World Largest Creditor Nation (lent money to other countries) Emerged as the Economic Centre of the world (London to New York)