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1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War.

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Presentation on theme: "1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 : The World at War : The World at War

3 Differing Viewpoints  “Family Feud”  “Fall of the Eagles”  “The War to End All Wars”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”

4 Causes of the War

5 1. Alliances! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

6 The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]

7 Europe in 1914

8 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

9 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries

10 4. Aggressive Nationalism

11 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

12 The “Spark”

13 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & HIS FAMILY

14 The Assassination: Sarajevo

15 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

16 Who’s To Blame?

17 GER:Schlieffen Plan

18 German Atrocities in Belgium

19 Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!  Home by Christmas!  No major war in 50 years!  Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!

20 Recruitment Posters

21 A Young Australian Recruit

22 New French Recruits

23

24 Women and the War Effort

25 Financing the War

26 For Recruitment

27 Munitions Workers

28 Women Factory Workers

29 Working in the Fields

30 Ambulance Driver

31 Red Cross Nurses

32 Women in the Army Auxiliary

33 Russian Women Soldiers

34 Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!

35 Posters: Wartime Propagand

36 Poster

37 American Poster

38 Financing the War

39 German Poster Think of Your Children!

40 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

41 A Multi-Front War

42 The Western Front

43 ***Trench Warfare

44 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

45 Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.

46 Battle of Somme –7/ 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

47 War Is HELL !!

48 Sacrifices in War

49 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

50 The Eastern Front

51 The Battle of Gallipoli, 1915

52 Turkish Cavalry in Palestine

53 The “Colonial” Fronts

54 Sikh British Soldiers in India

55 Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]

56 Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

57 Fighting in Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China

58 U.S.A Joins the Allies

59 1. Sinking of the Lusitania

60 2. Zimmerman Telegram

61 The Yanks Are Coming! Doughboys The Yanks Are Coming! Doughboys

62 Americans in the Trenches

63 The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology

64 1. French Renault Tank

65 British Tank at Ypres

66 2. U-Boats

67 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

68 3. Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

69 The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.

70 4. The Zeppelin

71 5. Flame Throwers 6. Grenade Launchers

72 8. Poison Gas 9. Machine Gun

73 “Art” of World War I

74 “A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918

75 “Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917

76 “Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914

77 “Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918

78 “Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917

79 11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!

80 9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead

81 The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died

82 World War I Casualties

83 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

84 Treaty of Versailles Signed Ended WW I: Treaty of Versailles Signed June 28 th, 1919 a)All of the 4 European Empires Reduced in Size b)New Countries Created in Europe c) Ottoman Empire-Divided into new countries & Mandated by Britain & France d) Arabs – Wanted Independence German a) Empire Lost Territory b) Made Repay War Reparations c) Made Reduce Size of Army / Navy d) “War Guilt Clause”-Germany made admit to starting WW I

85 Result of Treaty Weaknesses / Problems of the Treaty of Versailles Left Germany with a strong desire for Revenge Many German people found themselves in non-German nations Idea of Self-Determination violated-Arab countries became mandates When boundaries for countries were drawn up different ethic groups that did not get along together were clustered into one country for example: Iraq

86 Changes to the Map of Europe 1. German Empire: Reduced in size 2. From the Russian Empire: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia formed 3. Austrian–Hungarian Empire Split into New Countries: Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungarian, Czechoslovakia 4. Ottoman Empire Split into New Countries: Turkey, Syria, Iraq & Tran Jordan

87 Effects of WW1 Millions Dead  Map of Europe changed forever all 4-Empires collapsed  European Economies Destroyed  Major European Cities in Ruins  Influenza Virus Spread (birds)  End of Economic Opportunities for Women & African Americans  USA becomes A Creditor Nation  Postwar Recession: Slow Down in the Economy  Fear of the Spread of Communism (Red Scare)  League of nations Formed in Europe

88 WW1 Changes U.S Role in the World  Became Richest Country in the World  Largest Creditor Nation (lent money to other countries)  Emerged as the Economic Centre of the world (London to New York)


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