1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School San Marcos, CA
Differing Viewpoints “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
A War of Words World War I and the events surrounding it brought a number of new terms into people’s everyday vocabularies.
A War of Words 1.Armistice5. propaganda 2.Blockade6. reconnaissance 3.Convoy7. ultimatum 4.Mandate8. no-man’s land
I. Origins of the Crisis in Europe and the Middle East
A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans The Balkans in 1878 1. By the late 19th cent. The once-powerful Ottoman Empire was in decline & losing the outlying provinces closest to Europe.
A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans The Balkan Wars: 1912-1913 2. The European powers meddled in the affairs of the Ottoman Emp., sometime in cooperation, at other times as rivals.
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The Balkans in 1914 3. In reaction, the Young Turks conspired to force a constitution on the Sultan, advocated centralized rule & Turkification of minorities, & carried out modernizing reforms. 4. The Turks turned to Germany for assistance & hired a German general to modernize Turkey’s armed forces.
1. Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
2. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
2. The Alliance System 1.The major European countries were organized into two alliances: The Triple Alliance (Germany, A- H, & Italy) and the Triple Entente (Br., France, & Russia). 2.The military alliance system was accompanied by inflexible mobilization plans that depended on rXrs to move troops according to precise schedules.
2. The Alliance System 3. When A-H declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, diplomats, statesmen, and monarchs quickly lost control of events. 4. The alliance system in combination with the rigidly scheduled mobilization plans meant that war was automatic.
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
1.Nationalism was deeply rooted in European culture, where it served to unite individual nations while undermining large multiethnic empires. 2.Because of the spread of nationalism, most people viewed was as a crusade for liberty or as revenges for past injustices; the well-to-do believed that war could heal the class divisions in their societies.
1. The Outbreak of War oThe weakening of the Ottoman Empire, the rise of independent & fiercely nationalists states in the Balkans, & Austrian attempts to expand in the area raised tension between Austria & Russian-backed Serbia. Archduke Franz Ferdinand [heir to the Austrian throne] & His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo 1.On June 28, 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated Ferdinand. 2. Austria decided that Serbia should be harshly punished & issued an ultimatum 3. Germany offered Austria unconditional support & Russia backed the Serbs. 4. Fearful of falling behind in mobilization, all major powers rushed towards war.
Question: Why was speed so important to the Schlieffen Plan? Possible Answer : Because the plan called for Germany to defeat France and then return its troops to the east before Russia fully mobilized. SHLEE-fuhn
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
Recruitment Posters 1917: "I Want You for U.S. Army" lithograph. This image first appeared on the cover of a magazine called Leslie's Weekly with the title, "What Are You Doing for Preparedness?"
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
Human-Environment Interaction: Instructions : Read the handout given by Mr. Cargile and don’t forget to analyze the document. Then answer the questions on the back. Yes, in complete sentences and yes, you need to answer all eight. If you need to use another sheet of paper for question eight feel free. Addendum : 1.You may write on this sheet of paper. 2.You may work in your groups to answer. 3.Be prepared to discuss in front of the class
1.The U.S. grew rich during the war by selling goods to Britain and France. 2.When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, businesses engaged in war production made tremendous profits. The U.S. joins the allies.
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922) Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 19141922 Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197,000500 Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800