Presentation on theme: "1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School San Marcos, CA."— Presentation transcript:
: The World at War : The World at War Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School San Marcos, CA
Differing Viewpoints “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
A War of Words World War I and the events surrounding it brought a number of new terms into people’s everyday vocabularies.
A War of Words 1.Armistice5. propaganda 2.Blockade6. reconnaissance 3.Convoy7. ultimatum 4.Mandate8. no-man’s land
I. Origins of the Crisis in Europe and the Middle East
A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans The Balkans in By the late 19th cent. The once-powerful Ottoman Empire was in decline & losing the outlying provinces closest to Europe.
A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans The Balkan Wars: The European powers meddled in the affairs of the Ottoman Emp., sometime in cooperation, at other times as rivals.
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The Balkans in In reaction, the Young Turks conspired to force a constitution on the Sultan, advocated centralized rule & Turkification of minorities, & carried out modernizing reforms. 4. The Turks turned to Germany for assistance & hired a German general to modernize Turkey’s armed forces.
B. Causes of the War
1. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
2. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
2. The Alliance System 1.The major European countries were organized into two alliances: The Triple Alliance (Germany, A- H, & Italy) and the Triple Entente (Br., France, & Russia). 2.The military alliance system was accompanied by inflexible mobilization plans that depended on rXrs to move troops according to precise schedules.
2. The Alliance System 3. When A-H declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, diplomats, statesmen, and monarchs quickly lost control of events. 4. The alliance system in combination with the rigidly scheduled mobilization plans meant that war was automatic.
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
Europe in 1914
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914
Colonial Rivalries: Africa in 1914
4. Aggressive Nationalism
1.Nationalism was deeply rooted in European culture, where it served to unite individual nations while undermining large multiethnic empires. 2.Because of the spread of nationalism, most people viewed was as a crusade for liberty or as revenges for past injustices; the well-to-do believed that war could heal the class divisions in their societies.
C. The “ Spark ”
1. The Outbreak of War oThe weakening of the Ottoman Empire, the rise of independent & fiercely nationalists states in the Balkans, & Austrian attempts to expand in the area raised tension between Austria & Russian-backed Serbia. Archduke Franz Ferdinand [heir to the Austrian throne] & His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo 1.On June 28, 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated Ferdinand. 2. Austria decided that Serbia should be harshly punished & issued an ultimatum 3. Germany offered Austria unconditional support & Russia backed the Serbs. 4. Fearful of falling behind in mobilization, all major powers rushed towards war.
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip
Who’s To Blame?
The Schlieffen Plan
Question: Why was speed so important to the Schlieffen Plan? Possible Answer : Because the plan called for Germany to defeat France and then return its troops to the east before Russia fully mobilized. SHLEE-fuhn
German Atrocities in Belgium
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
Recruitment Posters 1917: "I Want You for U.S. Army" lithograph. This image first appeared on the cover of a magazine called Leslie's Weekly with the title, "What Are You Doing for Preparedness?"
A Young Australian Recruit
Recruits of the Central Powers Austro- Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
New French Recruits
A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
Women and the War Effort
Financing the War
French Women Factory Workers
German Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
A Woman Ambulance Driver
Red Cross Nurses
Women in the Army Auxiliary
Russian Women Soldiers
Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!
Posters: Wartime Propaganda
Financing the War
The Western Front: A “ War of Attrition ”
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
“No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
Human-Environment Interaction: Instructions : Read the handout given by Mr. Cargile and don’t forget to analyze the document. Then answer the questions on the back. Yes, in complete sentences and yes, you need to answer all eight. If you need to use another sheet of paper for question eight feel free. Addendum : 1.You may write on this sheet of paper. 2.You may work in your groups to answer. 3.Be prepared to discuss in front of the class
Turn to p
Question : Why was the Battle of Marne so significant? Answer : It meant the ruin of the Schlieffen Plan and forced Germany to fight a war on two fronts.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
The Eastern Front
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”,
T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles,
The Tsar with General Brusilov
The “ Colonial ” Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China
Discussion Question How did Europe’s colonial subjects help in the war effort? Answer Answer : Some fought as soldiers, while others worked as laborers keeping the frontlines supplied.
America Joins the Allies
1.The U.S. grew rich during the war by selling goods to Britain and France. 2.When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, businesses engaged in war production made tremendous profits. The U.S. joins the allies.
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!
Americans in the Trenches
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
“ Art ” of World War I
“A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
“Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
“Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
“Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
“Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
11 a.m., November 11, 1918
9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians ( ) Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197, Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800