2. Militarism & Arms Race Because of tensions, all the countries tried to keep an army prepared for war – it helped develop PRIDE (patriotism) in country 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% However, the country that increased their military the MOST was Germany…and this made everyone else nervous
Nationalism = a deep devotion to one’s nation Nationalism is a good thing if its patriotic It can be a bad thing if it causes tension, competition and a sense of superiority over others France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria Hungary and Russia were all competing for resources, markets and territory
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
Ottomans and the Balkans “Sick man of Europe” – behind economically, technologically & militarily Rebellions and independent movements (Greece, Serbia) France and Britain controlled much of Ottoman empire…angered Russia and the “Young Turks” who advocated “Turkification”
The “Spark” Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed by a 19-year old Serbian nationalist Austria declared war on Serbia – but Russia was an ally of Serbia…Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary…all the other alliances came into play!
The Schlieffen Plan Attack and defeat France, then run back to fight Russia…move fast Russia lags behind industrially, takes long to mobilize
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
Trench Warfare Rats, no bathroom, sleep in mud, blood all over, lie next to the dead Western Front was almost 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss border
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive against French e Each side: 500,000 casualties. eOnly 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain e German offensive against French e Each side: 500,000 casualties. eOnly 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain
The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
RUSSIA WITHDRAWS FROM WAR Civil unrest in Russia due to poor leadership and shortages of food and fuel COMMUNISM in RUSSIA (USSR) Lenin gets out of WWI, but at a huge price Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed by Germany and Russia
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Versailles Treaty Defeated powers kept out US (Wilson), Britain (Lloyd George), French (Clemenceau)…ignore everyone else (Italians, Japanese hope for all races to be treated equally, African Congress, Arabs, etc…) “Three all-powerful, all-ignorant men, sitting there carving up the continents
WILSON Idealist – wanted everyone to have self- determination (create nations based on ethnic or linguistic divisions) LEAGUE OF NATIONS (world organization to safeguard the peace and foster international cooperation
FRANCE AND BRITAIN France wants REVENGE Britain wants MONEY Compromise that no one liked – Treaty of Versaille
TREATY OF VERSAILLES Germany pays reparations/indemnity Germany has VERY limited military Germany gives up Alsace and Lorraine, colonies and eastern territory in Europe Germany has a GUILT CLAUSE – takes responsibility for starting WWI