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1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY.

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Presentation on theme: "1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY."— Presentation transcript:

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2 : The World at War : The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

3 Causes of the War

4 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

5 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

6 The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]

7 Europe in 1914

8 2. Militarism & Arms Race Because of tensions, all the countries tried to keep an army prepared for war – it helped develop PRIDE (patriotism) in country Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% However, the country that increased their military the MOST was Germany…and this made everyone else nervous

9 3. Imperialism and its rivalries

10 Imperialism  Imperialism had divided AFRICA, EUROPE, ASIA, AMERICAS WHY? The imperial powers were competing for power EVERYWHERE in the world…a world war was bound to happen

11 4. Aggressive Nationalism

12 Nationalism = a deep devotion to one’s nation  Nationalism is a good thing if its patriotic  It can be a bad thing if it causes tension, competition and a sense of superiority over others  France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria Hungary and Russia were all competing for resources, markets and territory

13 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

14 The “ Spark ”

15 Ottomans and the Balkans  “Sick man of Europe” – behind economically, technologically & militarily  Rebellions and independent movements (Greece, Serbia)  France and Britain controlled much of Ottoman empire…angered Russia and the “Young Turks” who advocated “Turkification”

16 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

17 The Assassination: Sarajevo

18 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

19 The “Spark”  Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed by a 19-year old Serbian nationalist  Austria declared war on Serbia – but Russia was an ally of Serbia…Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary…all the other alliances came into play!

20 Who’s To Blame?

21 The Schlieffen Plan Attack and defeat France, then run back to fight Russia…move fast Russia lags behind industrially, takes long to mobilize

22 Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!  Home by Christmas!  No major war in 50 years!  Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!

23 Recruitment Posters

24 A Young Australian Recruit

25 Recruits of the Central Powers Austro- Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

26 New French Recruits

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30 A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

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32 Red Cross Nurses

33 Russian Women Soldiers

34 Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!

35 Financing the War

36 German Poster Think of Your Children!

37 The Western Front: A “ War of Attrition ”

38 A Multi-Front War

39 The Western Front

40 Trench Warfare “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud and dreamed mud”…500 miles from N. Sea to Swiss border – 4 years: 2-3 miles

41 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

42 Trench Warfare  Rats, no bathroom, sleep in mud, blood all over, lie next to the dead  Western Front was almost 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss border

43 Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive against French e Each side: 500,000 casualties. eOnly 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain e German offensive against French e Each side: 500,000 casualties. eOnly 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain

44 The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

45 War Is HELL !!

46 Sacrifices in War

47 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

48 The Eastern Front

49 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915 Turks secretly sign alliance with Germany…British try to close the strait…fail

50 T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, British ask Hussein ibn Ali to lead Arab revolt ag. Turks…helped put down the Ottoman Empire / B. make promises to Jews as well

51 T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles,

52 The “ Colonial ” Fronts

53 Sikh British Soldiers in India

54 Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]

55 Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

56 Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China

57 America Joins the Allies

58 The Sinking of the Lusitania

59 The Zimmerman Telegram

60 The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!

61 Americans in the Trenches

62 RUSSIA WITHDRAWS FROM WAR  Civil unrest in Russia due to poor leadership and shortages of food and fuel  COMMUNISM in RUSSIA (USSR)  Lenin gets out of WWI, but at a huge price  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed by Germany and Russia

63 The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology

64 French Renault Tank

65 British Tank at Ypres

66 U-Boats

67 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

68 The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

69 The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.

70 Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

71 Looking for the “Red Baron?”

72 The Zeppelin

73 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

74 Poison Gas Machine Gun

75 “ Art ” of World War I

76 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

77 11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!

78 9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead

79 The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died

80 World War I Casualties

81 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

82 Versailles Treaty  Defeated powers kept out  US (Wilson), Britain (Lloyd George), French (Clemenceau)…ignore everyone else (Italians, Japanese hope for all races to be treated equally, African Congress, Arabs, etc…)  “Three all-powerful, all-ignorant men, sitting there carving up the continents

83 WILSON  Idealist – wanted everyone to have self- determination (create nations based on ethnic or linguistic divisions)  LEAGUE OF NATIONS (world organization to safeguard the peace and foster international cooperation

84 FRANCE AND BRITAIN  France wants REVENGE  Britain wants MONEY  Compromise that no one liked – Treaty of Versaille

85 TREATY OF VERSAILLES  Germany pays reparations/indemnity  Germany has VERY limited military  Germany gives up Alsace and Lorraine, colonies and eastern territory in Europe  Germany has a GUILT CLAUSE – takes responsibility for starting WWI


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