Presentation on theme: "1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY."— Presentation transcript:
: The World at War : The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Causes of the War
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
Europe in 1914
2. Militarism & Arms Race Because of tensions, all the countries tried to keep an army prepared for war – it helped develop PRIDE (patriotism) in country Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% However, the country that increased their military the MOST was Germany…and this made everyone else nervous
3. Imperialism and its rivalries
Imperialism Imperialism had divided AFRICA, EUROPE, ASIA, AMERICAS WHY? The imperial powers were competing for power EVERYWHERE in the world…a world war was bound to happen
4. Aggressive Nationalism
Nationalism = a deep devotion to one’s nation Nationalism is a good thing if its patriotic It can be a bad thing if it causes tension, competition and a sense of superiority over others France, Britain, Germany, Italy, Austria Hungary and Russia were all competing for resources, markets and territory
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The “ Spark ”
Ottomans and the Balkans “Sick man of Europe” – behind economically, technologically & militarily Rebellions and independent movements (Greece, Serbia) France and Britain controlled much of Ottoman empire…angered Russia and the “Young Turks” who advocated “Turkification”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip
The “Spark” Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed by a 19-year old Serbian nationalist Austria declared war on Serbia – but Russia was an ally of Serbia…Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary…all the other alliances came into play!
Who’s To Blame?
The Schlieffen Plan Attack and defeat France, then run back to fight Russia…move fast Russia lags behind industrially, takes long to mobilize
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
A Young Australian Recruit
Recruits of the Central Powers Austro- Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
New French Recruits
A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
Red Cross Nurses
Russian Women Soldiers
Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!
Financing the War
German Poster Think of Your Children!
The Western Front: A “ War of Attrition ”
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
Trench Warfare “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud and dreamed mud”…500 miles from N. Sea to Swiss border – 4 years: 2-3 miles
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Trench Warfare Rats, no bathroom, sleep in mud, blood all over, lie next to the dead Western Front was almost 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss border
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive against French e Each side: 500,000 casualties. eOnly 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain e German offensive against French e Each side: 500,000 casualties. eOnly 4 miles for Germans, 5 for Britain
The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
The Eastern Front
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915 Turks secretly sign alliance with Germany…British try to close the strait…fail
T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, British ask Hussein ibn Ali to lead Arab revolt ag. Turks…helped put down the Ottoman Empire / B. make promises to Jews as well
T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles,
The “ Colonial ” Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China
America Joins the Allies
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!
Americans in the Trenches
RUSSIA WITHDRAWS FROM WAR Civil unrest in Russia due to poor leadership and shortages of food and fuel COMMUNISM in RUSSIA (USSR) Lenin gets out of WWI, but at a huge price Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed by Germany and Russia
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
“ Art ” of World War I
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Versailles Treaty Defeated powers kept out US (Wilson), Britain (Lloyd George), French (Clemenceau)…ignore everyone else (Italians, Japanese hope for all races to be treated equally, African Congress, Arabs, etc…) “Three all-powerful, all-ignorant men, sitting there carving up the continents
WILSON Idealist – wanted everyone to have self- determination (create nations based on ethnic or linguistic divisions) LEAGUE OF NATIONS (world organization to safeguard the peace and foster international cooperation
FRANCE AND BRITAIN France wants REVENGE Britain wants MONEY Compromise that no one liked – Treaty of Versaille
TREATY OF VERSAILLES Germany pays reparations/indemnity Germany has VERY limited military Germany gives up Alsace and Lorraine, colonies and eastern territory in Europe Germany has a GUILT CLAUSE – takes responsibility for starting WWI