Presentation on theme: "1914-1918: The World at War 1914-1918: The World at War."— Presentation transcript:
: The World at War : The World at War
Causes of the War
M.A.I.N M ilitarism= the development of armed forces & their use as a tool of diplomacy A lliance System= countries form alliances with one another to help provide international security I mperialism= building of empires by extending their economic & political control over various peoples around the world N ationalism= the devotion to the interests & culture of one’s nation
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
Europe in 1914
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
4. Aggressive Nationalism
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The “ Spark ”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family Heir to the Austrian throne
The Assassination: Sarajevo June 1914 shot and killed while visiting Bosnian capital Sarajevo
The Schlieffen Plan -Germany invades Belgium Aug. 3, Invade Belgium, then onto Paris, France, then Russia
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
The Western Front: A “ War of Attrition ”
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
“No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
America Joins the Allies
Americans are Divided Socialists - criticize war as capitalist & imperialist Pacifists - belief that war was evil & America needs to set an example of peace to rest of world Home Country Ties - many sympathized with the country in which they had emigrated from Economic Ties - most tied to Allied Powers, less to Germany Outcome: Remain NEUTRAL
War Hits Home -British blockade German coast -German U-Boats counter-blockade Outcome : American ships & civilians caught in middle May 1915 British liner Lusitania sunk (128 Americans die) August 1915 British liner Arabic sunk (2 American die) March 1916 French liner Sussex sunk (5 Americans die )
War is inevitable……. -Woodrow Wilson is re-elected in January 1917 calls for “a peace without vicotory…..a peace between equals” -Germany ignores Wilson’s call for peace -January 31…. Kaiser Wilhelm declares Germany will resume “Unrestricted Submarine Warfare” in British waters
The Zimmerman Telegram -German foreign minister sends telegram to German ambassador in Mexico -Suggested Mexico declare war with U.S. and Germany would support them in alliance
The Yanks Are Coming! April 1917 The Yanks Are Coming! April 1917
Americans in the Trenches
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
“ Art ” of World War I
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died