2Chapter Outline Defining Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnic Relations Theories of Race and Ethnic RelationsSome Advantages of EthnicityThe Future of Race and Ethnicity
3*Race, Biology and Society Race refers to socially significant physical differences, such as skin color, rather than biological differences that determine behavioral traits.Racial distinctions are social constructs, not biological “givens.”
4*The Social Construction of Race Many scholars believe we belong to one human race which originated in Africa.Migration, geographical separation, and inbreeding led to the formation of more or less distinct races.Humanity has experienced so much intermixing that race as a biological category has lost meaning.Sociologists use the term “race” because perceptions of race affect the lives of most people profoundly.
5QuestionDuring the last few years, has anyone in your family brought a friend who was a different race home for dinner?
6GSS National DataRaceWhiteBlackYes32.3%51%NO67.7%49%
7*Ethnicity, Culture, and Social Structure Race is to biology as ethnicity is to culture.race - a category of people whose perceived physical markers are deemed socially significant.ethnic group - composed of people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant.
8Question Prejudice is: an attitude that judges a person on his or her group’s real or imagined characteristicsunfair treatment of people due to their group membershipdirected toward people whose cultural markers are socially significant
9Answer: a.Prejudice is an attitude that judges a person on his or her group’s real or imagined characteristics.
11*Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice is an attitude that judges a person according to his or her group’s real or imagined characteristics.Discrimination is unfair treatment of people because of their group membership.
13*Hate CrimesCriminal incidents motivated by a person’s race, religion, or ethnicity.In 2003 the FBI recorded 7,489 hate crimes, each incident may involve multiple offenses.8,715 total offenses were recorded.The most frequent victims of hate crimes are African Americans, who were the object of nearly 35% of all offenses.
14QuestionThink about Whites in the U.S. compared to ethnic and racial minority groups. To what extent do you agree with the following: Whites as a group are very distinct and different from ethnic and racial minority groups.Strongly agreeAgree somewhatUnsureDisagree somewhatStrongly disagree
15*Minority GroupA group of people who are socially disadvantaged, even if they are in the numerical majority (e.g., the blacks of South Africa).
16Hispanic AmericansAccording to the U.S. Census Bureau, nearly 39 million Hispanic Americans lived in the United States in 2003.The Bureau predicts they will number more than 96 million in 2050.
18Population by Hispanic Origin and Region, 2002 MexicanPuerto RicanCubanOtherNortheast2.458.013.330.2Midwest8.78.53.04.8South34.327.075.132.6West54.66.432.4
19*Ethnic EnclaveA spatial concentration of ethnic group members who establish businesses that serve and employ mainly members of the ethnic group and reinvest profits in community businesses and organizations.
20*Ethnic Groups in the Soviet Union by Republic, 1979
22*Symbolic EthnicityA nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, or that of the old country, that is not usually incorporated into everyday behavior.
23*RacismThe belief that a visible characteristic of a group, such as skin color, indicates group inferiority and justifies discrimination.Institutional racism is bias that is inherent in social institutions and is often not noticed by members of the majority group.Examples:When police single out African Americans for car searches.When department stores tell floorwalkers to watch for African American shoplifters.
24*QuestionIn the past few years, do you think conditions for black people have improved, gotten worse, or stayed about the same?
25*GSS National Data Race White Black Improved 67.8% 45.8% Stayed the Same26.9%41.5%Gotten Worse5.3%12.7%
26*Stages of Ecological Theory 1. Invasion.One group tries to move into the territory of another.2. Resistance.The established group tries to defend its territory and institutions3. Competition.The groups compete for scarce resources.4. Accommodation & CooperationThe groups work out an understanding of what to segregate, divide, and share.5. Assimilation.The minority blends into the majority population and eventually disappears as a distinct group.
27*Internal Colonialism Involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same country.Prevents assimilation by segregating the subordinate group in terms of jobs, housing, and social contacts.
28*Split Labor MarketsIn split labor markets, low-wage workers of one race and high-wage workers of another race compete for the same jobs.High-wage workers resent the low-wage competitors, resulting in conflict and the development of racist attitudes
29*Native AmericansExpulsion and genocide best describe the treatment of Native Americans by European settlers in the 19th century.Expulsion is the forcible removal of a population from a territory claimed by another population.Genocide is the intentional extermination of an entire population defined as a race or a people.
30*Native Americans1830 Indian Removal Act - Called for relocation of all Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi.In the “Trail of Tears,” the U.S. Army rounded up all 16,000 Cherokees and marched them to Oklahoma.4,000 Cherokees died.Late 19th century - government adopted a policy of forced assimilation.
31*Native Americans1930’s and 40s - Roosevelt adopted a more liberal policy:Prohibited further breakup of Native lands.Encouraged Native self-rule & cultural preservation.1950s - government proposed toend the reservation systemdeny sovereign status of the tribescut off government servicesstop protecting Indian lands held in trust for the tribes.The proposal was not implemented due to strong resistance by the Native-American community.
32*Casino Revenue per Tribal Member, Selected Tribes, 2001 PopulationCasino Revenue per MemberMashantucket Pequot677$1,624,815Santa Ynez159$1,257,862Miccosukee Tribe400$250,000Seminole Tribe2,817$87,862
33*Casino Revenue per Tribal Member, Selected Tribes, 2001 PopulationCasino Revenue per MemberMississippi Choctaw8,823$25,047Hopi Tribe11,267$0Navajo Nation260,010
34QuestionThe words that best describe the treatment of Native Americans by European settlers in the 19th century are:expulsion and genocideprejudice and discriminationscapegoat and minority grouprace and ethnicity
35Answer: a.The words that best describe the treatment of Native Americans by European settlers in the 19th century are expulsion and genocide.
36*Slavery Ownership and control of people. By about 1800, 24 million Africans had been transported on slave ships to North, Central, & South America.11 million survived the passage.Fewer than 10% of the survivors arrived in the United States.
37*SlaveryBecause the birthrate of African slaves in the U.S. was so high, nearly 30% of the black population in the New World was living in the U.S. by 1825.By the outbreak of the Civil War, 4.4 million black slaves lived in the U.S.The cotton and tobacco economy of depended on their labor.
38*SlaveryEven after slavery was banned in 1863, Jim Crow laws kept blacks from voting, attending white schools, and participating equally in social institutions.In 1896 the U.S. Supreme Court approved segregation when it ruled that separate facilities for blacks and whites were legal as long as they were of nominally equal quality.
39*Chinese AmericansIn 1882 Congress passed an act prohibiting the immigration of three classes of people into the United States for 10 years: lunatics, idiots, and Chinese.The act was extended for another decade in 1892, made permanent in 1907, and repealed in 1943, when Congress established a quota of a grand total of 105 Chinese immigrants per year.Chinese Americans have experienced considerable upward mobility in the past half century.More than 30% of Chinese Americans now marry whites.
41*Top 10 Countries of Origin of Foreign-Born Americans, 1900, 1960, 2000 GermanyItalyMexico2IrelandChina3CanadaPhilippines4Great BritainIndia5SwedenPolandCuba6Soviet UnionVietnam7El Salvador8Korea9NorwayHungaryDominican Republic10AustriaCzechoslovakia
42*Transnational Communities Communities whose boundaries extend between countries.
43Median Family Income Ratios, Black/White and Hispanic/White, U. S
44*White Prejudice and Discrimination against Blacks
45QuestionDo you think racism is becoming more serious in the United States and worldwide? Why or why not?How do trends in racism compare with trends in other forms of prejudice, such as sexism?
46“How warm or cool do you feel towards Caucasian, African, Hispanic, and Asian Americans?” U.S., 2002
47*The 10 Most Racially Segregated Major Metropolitan Areas in the U.S. CitySegregation IndexDetroit87.6Chicago85.8Cleveland85.1Milwaukee82.8New York82.2Philadelphia77.2St. Louis77.0Los Angeles–Long Beach73.1Birmingham71.7Baltimore71.4
561. Race is:an attitude that judges a person on his or her group's real or imagined characteristicsa category of people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significanta social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markersthe tendency to blame other racial or ethnic groups for one's own problems
57Answer: cRace is a social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers.
582. Most sociologists believe race matters because it allows social inequality to be created and maintained.TrueFalse
59Answer: TrueMost sociologists believe race matters because it allows social inequality to be created and maintained.
603. An ethnic group is:an attitude that judges a person on his or her group's real or imagined characteristicsa category of people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significanta social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markersthe tendency to blame other racial or ethnic groups for one's own problems
61Answer: bAn ethnic group is a category of people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant.
62police single out African Americans for car searches 4. We see institutional racism in practice when:police single out African Americans for car searchesdepartment stores tell their floorwalkers to keep a sharp eye out for African-American shopliftersbanks reject African-American mortgage applications more than applications from white Americans of the same economic standingall of these choices
63Answer: dWe see institutional racism in practice when police single out African Americans for car searches, department stores tell their floorwalkers to keep a sharp eye out for African-American shoplifters, and banks reject African-American mortgage applications more than applications from white Americans of the same economic standing.
645. _______________ are spatial concentrations of ethnic group members who establish businesses that serve and employ mainly members of the ethnic group and reinvest profits in community businesses and organization.
65Answer: ethnic enclaves Ethnic enclaves are spatial concentrations of ethnic group members who establish businesses that serve and employ mainly members of the ethnic group and reinvest profits in community businesses and organization.
666. In regard to racial differences, sociologists argue that: one cannot neatly distinguish races on the basis of genetic differencesa high level of genetic mixing has taken place throughout the worldrace is merely a social constructall of these choices
67Answer: dIn regard to racial differences, sociologists argue that: one cannot neatly distinguish races on the basis of genetic differences, a high level of genetic mixing has taken place throughout the world, and race is merely a social construct.