Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity refers to cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that tend to set people apart."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity refers to cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that tend to set people apart.
Ethnic groups Members see themselves as culturally distinct. Characteristics that set them apart may be language, history, religion, ancestry. Ethnic differences are learned.
Race Race is a classification system that assigns people to categories that are ranked. There is a range of physical variation among people based on population in-breeding. Racial distinctions are factors in reproduction of patterns and power and inequality in society. Racialization—classify groups of people by understanding of race. Mostly done through law.
Ethnicity Assimilation and intermarriage make ethnicity in U.S. More of a choice. Situational ethnicity shows how ethnic or racial identification is socially constructed. People may choose to hide or use identity depending on situations, ie. Job interviews. Symbolic ethnicity occurs where people have assimilated but choose to celebrate ethnic holidays like St.Patrick’s Day.
Race Race is often not choice and may have negative consequences like housing segregation. Many Americans believe race is natural category. Legacy of European imperialism and scientific racism. Census categories reflect politics and power relations. Hispanic category was added in 1970. Multiracial was added in 2000.
Race Racism is system of domination that works in social institutions or in individuals. Institutional racism means racism is part of structures found in society such as police. Idea was developed during black power movement of 1960’s.
New Racism Cultural differences exclude certain groups. Cultural arguments are used to support discrimination. Hierarchies of superiority and inferiority are constructed according to values of majority. New racism may have a political dimension.
Prejudice refers to opinions held by members of one group toward another. Prejudice uses stereotypes or fixed, inflexible categories. Scapegoating is common when two deprived groups compete for rewards such as jobs. Discrimination refers to actual behavior toward another group. It rewards and benefits the dominant group. It may exclude or restrict members of one group.
Minority group refers to disadvantaged group compared to dominant group. Have some sense of group solidarity. Racism has flourished because of relationships established during Imperialism. Europeans had to develop rationale for enslaving people. Some whites believed in white superiority,
Positive models of Political Integration Assimilation meant that new immigrant groups would assume language and attitudes of dominant white majority. Melting Pot meant merging different cultures by mixing them together. Pluralism is where ethnic groups can exist separately but participate in larger society. Multiculturalism means ethnic groups exist separately and are equal.
Immigration Immigration-movement of people into a country to settle Emigration-process whereby people leave a nation to settle elsewhere Classic model of immigration—immigration is encouraged and citizenship is extended Colonial model-favors immigrants from former colonies,ie. Britain
Immigration con’t Guest worker model-immigrants are admitted on temporary basis, usually for labor. They do not get citizenship even if they stay for long time. Illegal models-without legal permission. Can be deported at any time. Often afraid of gov’t and police. Willing to work for low wages.
Global Migration Patterns Macro-level factors such as political situations, immigration laws, changes in global economy Micro-level factors such as resources, knowledge that migrant populations have. All of these factors may intersect.ie. Turkish community in Germany
Castles and Miller predict future patterns Acceleration Diversification – countries have immigrants of different types Globalization – greater number of countries both receive and send people. Feminization-more migrants are women.
Diaspora refers to dispersal of ethnic population from original homeland to foreign areas, often forced. Members may be scattered but share common history, collective memory of homeland, common identity. Diasporas are on-going processes of maintaining identity and preserving ethnic culture.
Ethnic relations in U.S. U.S. is one of most ethnically diverse cultures Focus on divisions and struggle History of immigration in U.S. There are millions of foreign born, some are illegal Some unskilled immigrants may rely on gov’t help. Some believe they have taken jobs from unskilled Americans. Others say immigrants contribute to economic growth.
Neighborhood segregation continues.. Often results in separate school systems of unequal quality. Wilson argues that race is less important than economic and class disadvantages.