2 Contrast & compare the causes of the American & French Revolutions. limitations on aristocracy & churchincreased voice for citizensmiddle class want greater political rolepeasants want freedom from landlordsAMERICANwar for independencetaxesno taxation without representationtrade controlsrestrictions on movement in frontier areas
3 What were the lasting reforms of the French Revolution? metric systemuniversal male suffragereligious freedomsubstantial equality for mennew law codescentralized system of secondary schools & universitiesnew constitution
4 What new political movements emerged in the aftermath of the French Revolution? conservative –repress revolutionary ideasliberals – limited state interferenceradicals – extended voting rightssocialists – attack private property & capitalismnationalists – stress national unity
5 What changes led to industrialization? automatic machinery in textiles industrysteam enginerecurrent technological changeinventionsinterchangeable partsuse of coal & cokeimprovements in agricultureimprovements in transportation & communication
6 What changes in social organization did industrialization cause? movement of people to citiesyoung adults moving from familiescities crowded, dirty, crimenew social divisions – middle class move away from citieswork separate from familywork unpleasant, fast, monotonousfactory work stressfulpopular leisure changesmiddleclass family – wife stay home with children, husband goes to workwomen’s sphere separatewomen & children sheltered from work worldeducation now important for children
7 How were industrialization & revolution linked? government functions shiftedbuild railroadspromote science & engineeringencourage educationsewer systemspolitical protest compensated for industrial change (Chartist movement)artisans want industry regulatedsocial demands because of changes brought by industrialization
8 How did government functions increase in response to the “social question”? civil service examsregulations – safety, health, personal travel,schooling expands (compulsory to age 12)expand public secondary schoolswider welfare measuresmeasures to aid unemployment
9 How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850? rationalist traditionapply science to practical affairslink science & technologycombine science & medicineDarwin’s theoryphysicsEinstein – theory of relativityFreud – human subconsciousARTDickens – realistic portrayals of human problemssome painters build on discoveries of scienceromanticism – emotion & impression (not reason & generalization) were keys to human experienceportray passionsempathy with naturetry to violate traditional Western standardsabstract, atonal
10 revolutions created new states Discuss the influence of the revolutions beginning in 1820 and extending through 1870 in reconstructing the map of Europe, and how the reconstruction affected the development of European diplomacy by 1907.revolutions created new statesgreatest impact in eastern & central Europeemergence of new states accompanied by economic growthGermany an economic threat to BritainGermany & Italy want colonies, be a part of world empireseconomic & colonial competition upset balance of powerTriple Alliance & Triple Entente.
11 Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West.pre-industrialization, social order based on peasantry, aristocracy & the churchpost – industrialization, aristocracy & church lose powersocial status based on wealthliberals sought political power that went with economic power of middle class (limited, constitutional government)radicals & socialists want power extended to working class, extension of voting rightsall manipulated by conservative politicians often through nationalism.