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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 23 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Contrast & compare the causes of the American & French Revolutions.
limitations on aristocracy & church increased voice for citizens middle class want greater political role peasants want freedom from landlords AMERICAN war for independence taxes no taxation without representation trade controls restrictions on movement in frontier areas

3 What were the lasting reforms of the French Revolution?
metric system universal male suffrage religious freedom substantial equality for men new law codes centralized system of secondary schools & universities new constitution

4 What new political movements emerged in the aftermath of the French Revolution?
conservative –repress revolutionary ideas liberals – limited state interference radicals – extended voting rights socialists – attack private property & capitalism nationalists – stress national unity

5 What changes led to industrialization?
automatic machinery in textiles industry steam engine recurrent technological change inventions interchangeable parts use of coal & coke improvements in agriculture improvements in transportation & communication

6 What changes in social organization did industrialization cause?
movement of people to cities young adults moving from families cities crowded, dirty, crime new social divisions – middle class move away from cities work separate from family work unpleasant, fast, monotonous factory work stressful popular leisure changes middleclass family – wife stay home with children, husband goes to work women’s sphere separate women & children sheltered from work world education now important for children

7 How were industrialization & revolution linked?
government functions shifted build railroads promote science & engineering encourage education sewer systems political protest compensated for industrial change (Chartist movement) artisans want industry regulated social demands because of changes brought by industrialization

8 How did government functions increase in response to the “social question”?
civil service exams regulations – safety, health, personal travel, schooling expands (compulsory to age 12) expand public secondary schools wider welfare measures measures to aid unemployment

9 How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850?
rationalist tradition apply science to practical affairs link science & technology combine science & medicine Darwin’s theory physics Einstein – theory of relativity Freud – human subconscious ART Dickens – realistic portrayals of human problems some painters build on discoveries of science romanticism – emotion & impression (not reason & generalization) were keys to human experience portray passions empathy with nature try to violate traditional Western standards abstract, atonal

10 revolutions created new states
Discuss the influence of the revolutions beginning in 1820 and extending through 1870 in reconstructing the map of Europe, and how the reconstruction affected the development of European diplomacy by 1907. revolutions created new states greatest impact in eastern & central Europe emergence of new states accompanied by economic growth Germany an economic threat to Britain Germany & Italy want colonies, be a part of world empires economic & colonial competition upset balance of power Triple Alliance & Triple Entente.

11 Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West. pre-industrialization, social order based on peasantry, aristocracy & the church post – industrialization, aristocracy & church lose power social status based on wealth liberals sought political power that went with economic power of middle class (limited, constitutional government) radicals & socialists want power extended to working class, extension of voting rights all manipulated by conservative politicians often through nationalism.


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