Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Modern Era 1750 - 1914 Dawn of Industrialization Chapter 23 and beyone."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 5 Modern Era 1750 - 1914 Dawn of Industrialization Chapter 23 and beyone
Forces of Change intellectual Enlightenment thinkers challenge existing order gap b/t intellectuals & established institutions population pressure - increase merchants encourage economic & technological changes stimulate expansion on manufacturing & consumerism youthful independence grew
Revolutions call for change or restoration of past patterns American taxes trade controls restrict expansion constitution based on Enlightenment principles French call for change – mid 1700s - limitations on aristocracy & church - increased voice for citizens - middle-class want greater political role - peasants want freedom from landlords
market economy King cannot control Declaration of Rights of Man & the Citizen assembly abolishes manorialism enact equality before the law new parliament limits royal authority church privileges attacked reforms cause resistance & civil wars in some areas economic chaos
revolution taken over by radical groups - abolish monarchy - Reign of Terror universal male suffrage radical leadership falls in 1795 - moderates take over Napoleon Bonaparte - turns revolutionary republic into authoritarian empire - kept many of changes
focus more on foreign expansion - 1812 control w. Europe except Britain 1815 empire ends - revolutionary ideals survived victorious allies = restore balance of power France not peaceful internally conservative victors – repress revolutionary ideas liberals - limited state interference radicals - extended voting rights socialists – attack private property & capitalism nationalists – stress national unity
political discussion center on constitution & political participation revolutions (1820s & 30s)in: Greece Spain Portugal France Italy Germany Belgium secure more liberal rights & religious freedom
Industrial Revolution begin in Britain technological change - coal powered engines to replace animal & human power Enlightenment thinking = ideological base for change origins 1770-1840 factories interchangeable parts coal & coke fuel transportation & communication improved agriculture factory system
Disruptions of Industrial Life movement of people social changes to family work conditions end leisurely craft production middle class redefines family life lower classes turned to governments to compensate for industrial changes revolts follow – government unresponsive
social reform equal rights “revolutions of 1848” spread through western Europe want: liberal constitutions limits on industrialization end of manorialism ethnic demands generally failed - thus gradual methods needed to be applied aristocracy declines - social structure based on wealth
middle class property owners vs. working class old alliances that produced revolutions dissolved revolutions in West become obsolete industrial consolidation 1850-1914 rise of socialism adjustments to industrial life stable populations children valued material conditions improve peasants improve lives labor movements
Political Trends cautious change Britain – vote to working-class males 1867 Prussia – vote to all adult males conservatives use nationalism to win support united: Italy Germany (1871) most Western nations have parliamentary systems - basic liberties protected - political parties peacefully contest for office key political issues reduced
New Government Functions expand civil service exams school systems welfare systems set up government & citizen contact with each other rise of socialism - Karl Marx revisionists support parliamentary democracy to achieve goals
feminist movements late 1800s Cultural Change higher wages increased leisure time - pleasure part of life consumption encouraged (factory capacity) mass leisure culture - rise of team sports - growing secularism advances in scientific knowledge - continues tradition of rationalism - Darwin, Einstein, Freud
Artistic Expression romanticism vs rationalism African & East Asian influences Western culture doesn’t synthesize Expansion of West’s power new markets & raw material needed transportation & communication -Europeans & superior weapons help spread empires - immigration http://www.uwec.edu/geogrApHy/Ivogeler/w111/world- europeanization-animated.gif
U.S. - growing power Civil War – 1 st modern war - industrially produced weapons - accelerates industrialization - new technology British settler colonies Canada, Australia, New Zealand parliamentary governments, European culture dependent on Great Britain economically
20 th century balance of power altered by Germany’s rise overseas expansion by European countries imperial rivalries add to tension in Europe Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Triple Entente Britain France Russia 1 unstable partner in each all lead into WWI
1. Contrast & compare the causes of the American & French Revolutions. 2. What were the lasting reforms of the French Revolution? 3. What new political movements emerged in the aftermath of the French Revolution? 4. What changes led to industrialization? 5. What changes in social organization did industrialization cause? 6. How were industrialization & revolution linked? 7. How did government functions increase in response to the “social question”? 8. How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850? 9. Discuss the influence of the revolutions beginning in 1820 and extending through 1870 in reconstructing the map of Europe, and how the reconstruction affected the development of European diplomacy by 1907. 10. Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West.
Contrast & compare the causes of the American & French Revolutions. AMERICAN war for independence taxes –no taxation without representation trade controls restrictions on movement in frontier areas FRENCH limitations on aristocracy & church increased voice for citizens middle class want greater political role peasants want freedom from landlords
What were the lasting reforms of the French Revolution? metric system universal male suffrage religious freedom substantial equality for men new law codes centralized system of secondary schools & universities new constitution
What new political movements emerged in the aftermath of the French Revolution? conservative –repress revolutionary ideas liberals – limited state interference radicals – extended voting rights socialists – attack private property & capitalism nationalists – stress national unity
What changes led to industrialization? automatic machinery in textiles industry steam engine recurrent technological change inventions interchangeable parts use of coal & coke improvements in agriculture improvements in transportation & communication
What changes in social organization did industrialization cause? movement of people to cities young adults moving from families cities crowded, dirty, crime new social divisions – middle class move away from cities work separate from family work unpleasant, fast, monotonous factory work stressful popular leisure changes middleclass family – wife stay home with children, husband goes to work women’s sphere separate women & children sheltered from work world education now important for children
How were industrialization & revolution linked? government functions shifted build railroads promote science & engineering encourage education sewer systems political protest compensated for industrial change (Chartist movement) artisans want industry regulated social demands because of changes brought by industrialization
How did government functions increase in response to the “social question”? civil service exams regulations – safety, health, personal travel, schooling expands (compulsory to age 12) expand public secondary schools wider welfare measures measures to aid unemployment
How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850? SCIENCE rationalist tradition apply science to practical affairs link science & technology combine science & medicine Darwin’s theory physics Einstein – theory of relativity Freud – human subconscious ART Dickens – realistic portrayals of human problems some painters build on discoveries of science romanticism – emotion & impression (not reason & generalization) were keys to human experience portray passions empathy with nature try to violate traditional Western standards abstract, atonal
Discuss the influence of the revolutions beginning in 1820 and extending through 1870 in reconstructing the map of Europe, and how the reconstruction affected the development of European diplomacy by 1907. revolutions created new states greatest impact in eastern & central Europe emergence of new states accompanied by economic growth Germany an economic threat to Britain Germany & Italy want colonies, be a part of world empires economic & colonial competition upset balance of power Triple Alliance & Triple Entente.
Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West. pre-industrialization, social order based on peasantry, aristocracy & the church post – industrialization, aristocracy & church lose power social status based on wealth liberals sought political power that went with economic power of middle class (limited, constitutional government) radicals & socialists want power extended to working class, extension of voting rights all manipulated by conservative politicians often through nationalism.
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