7 Effects of the Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution brought about many economic and social changes.*Laissez-Faire EconomicsPast trade problems called for government regulation to create a favorable balance of trade.BUT, a theory called Laissez-Faire called for little or no government interference into business operations. The book The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith promoted the laissez-faire ideas, which became the basis of the economic system during the Industrial Revolution.
8 New Class StructureEarly classes in Europe consisted of nobles and peasants. During the 1600s, a middle class had emerged. The Industrial Revolution added more complexity.Upper class: very rich industrial and business families.Upper middle class: business people and professionals…..They had a high standard of living.Lower middle class: teachers, office workers, shop owners, and clerks existed.Lower class: factory workers and peasants. These people faced harsh living and working conditions in overcrowded cities.
9 UrbanizationPeople moved from small villages to the towns and cities where factories were located.Conditions in cities were bad; working class lived in crowded buildings. Without a sewage or sanitation system, garbage rotted in the streets and disease spread.
10 Working ConditionsFactory hours were long. Men, women, and children worked hours a day. Mass production methods led to boring work and many of the machines were dangerous.
11 Changing Social RolesThe roles of men, women, and children changed in the new industrial society.Farming families worked together, now the workplace became separated from the home. Social class had impact on family life
12 Middle-ClassMen worked in the public world of business and government.Women worked at home, where they maintained the dwelling and raised the children, including their moral instruction.Children had high standard of living and better chance of education.
13 Working- ClassBoth men and women had to work long hours in factories for very little pay and women received much less pay then men. Children had to work long hours to help support families.Family life suffered as women worked 12 hours or more in a factory and then came home to care for their families.
14 Improved Transportation Growth of industry led to improvements in transportation.Roads and canals were built and improved.The steam locomotive was invented. Railroads grew.Steam engines powered ships at sea.
15 Rising Standards of Living Settlement patterns shifted over time.The rich lived in pleasant neighborhoods on the edges of the cities.The poor crowded into slums in the city centers, near factories.Over time, conditions in cities improved and people ate more varied diets and were healthier - thanks to advances in medicine.