Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Late Nineteenth Century European Thought and Society

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Late Nineteenth Century European Thought and Society"— Presentation transcript:

1 Late Nineteenth Century European Thought and Society

2 The Second Industrial Revolution
Began in the 1850s First Industrial Revolution Steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil Internal combustion engine Consumer society

3 Marshall Field’s Department Store, 1890

4 European Railroads

5 Iron and Steel Production 1875-1915

6 European GNP

7 Early Automobile, 1899

8 The Second Industrial Revolution
Depression of 1873 European economies expanded Technological advances lower food costs Competition slows down economy Bad investments cause banks to fail

9 Impact of industrialisation – on public health & prevention & cure of disease

10 Living & working conditions
overcrowding - spreads disease; Houses built close to factories - pollution houses built back-to-back: diseases spread more easily Dirty streets = garbage in streets = disease Polluted water = cholera Factories/machinery very dangerous – many accidents (incl. for children) Long hours; severe punishments – very young children worked about 12 hours Factories = badly lit & ventilated; windows closed; breathing in dust & cotton fibres

11 Common diseases Smallpox Cholera TB Diptheria Influenza etc

12 Recognition by government of problems (Actions taken by government):
1848 Public Health Act Set up a system to encourage – but not force – local authorities to improve conditions in their area Allowed local authorities to make improvements if they wanted to & if ratepayers gave them their support Enabled local authorities to borrow money to pay for the improvements 1875 Public Health Act became law for all local councils to provide clean water, proper drainage & sewage Had to appoint a Medical Officer of Health Other public health actions: 1852 – government makes vaccinations compulsory = direct action to improve health of people 1876 – govt passes laws against pollution of rivers & introduces food regulations

13 Edwin Chadwick

14 Significance: He made suggestions to the Poor Law Commission
Wrote his findings in a report called Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population in 1842 Concluded that poverty was due to poor health conditions Recommended: Improve drainage Remove refuse from streets Improve water supplies Appoint Medical Officer to help improve health of poor people Government finally responds to Chadwick’s report – leads to passing of 1848 Public Health Act

15 Louis Pasteur

16 The fight against disease: GERM THEORY

17 Definition: Theory that micro-organism called germs cause disease

18 middle class property owners vs. working class
old alliances that produced revolutions dissolved revolutions in West become obsolete industrial consolidation rise of socialism stable populations children valued material conditions improve peasants improve lives labor movements adjustments to industrial life

19 Political Trends cautious change
Britain – vote to working-class males 1867 Prussia – vote to all adult males conservatives use nationalism to win support united: Italy Germany (1871) key political issues reduced most Western nations have parliamentary systems - basic liberties protected - political parties peacefully contest for office

20 New Government Functions
expand civil service exams school systems welfare systems set up government & citizen contact with each other rise of socialism - Karl Marx revisionists support parliamentary democracy to achieve goals

21 Cultural Change feminist movements late 1800s higher wages
increased leisure time - pleasure part of life mass leisure culture - rise of team sports - growing secularism consumption encouraged (factory capacity) advances in scientific knowledge - continues tradition of rationalism - Darwin, Einstein, Freud

22 What changes in social organization did industrialization cause?
movement of people to cities young adults moving from families cities crowded, dirty, crime new social divisions – middle class move away from cities work separate from family work unpleasant, fast, monotonous factory work stressful popular leisure changes middleclass family – wife stay home with children, husband goes to work women’s sphere separate women & children sheltered from work world education now important for children

23 How did government functions increase in response to the “social question”?
civil service exams regulations – safety, health, personal travel, schooling expands (compulsory to age 12) expand public secondary schools wider welfare measures measures to aid unemployment

24 How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850?
rationalist tradition apply science to practical affairs link science & technology combine science & medicine Darwin’s theory physics Einstein – theory of relativity Freud – human subconscious ART Dickens – realistic portrayals of human problems some painters build on discoveries of science romanticism – emotion & impression (not reason & generalization) were keys to human experience portray passions empathy with nature try to violate traditional Western standards abstract, atonal

25 The Second Industrial Revolution
Middle Class (bourgeoisie) continues to expand Rise of “white collar workers” (petite bourgeoisie)

26 Upper Middle Class Society

27 The Second Industrial Revolution
Urbanization continues late 19th century Governments introduce urban planning

28 Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe
Still considered property of husbands and fathers Educational opportunities finally available by late 1800s

29 Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe
Middle Class women Cult of Domesticity Middle class women begin to have fewer children

30 English Middle Class Women

31 Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe
Rise of Women’s movement Women demand reforms in public health and working conditions

32 Women’s Suffrage Movement

33 Jews in Late Nineteenth Century Europe
Discrimination against Jews for most of European history “Emancipation” Rise of Anti-Semitism Zionist Movement

34 Zionist Movement Theodore Herzl, founder of the Zionist movement

35 Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West. pre-industrialization, social order based on peasantry, aristocracy & the church post – industrialization, aristocracy & church lose power social status based on wealth liberals sought political power that went with economic power of middle class (limited, constitutional government) radicals & socialists want power extended to working class, extension of voting rights all manipulated by conservative politicians often through nationalism.

36 Workers in Late Nineteenth Century Europe
Workers demand better working conditions Workers gain voting rights throughout most of Europe

37 Reaction to Marxism Marxism spreads throughout Europe
International Working Men’s Association Calls for government ownership of industries

38 Reaction to Marxism Britain Unions become legal in 1880s
Fabian Society

39 Reaction to Marxism France
Marxism a great influence on French labor movements French workers resorted to strikes

40 Reaction to Marxism Germany Social Democratic Party
Bismarck considered Social Democrats a threat Social legislation passed in 1883

41 German Socialists

42 Reaction to Marxism Russia
Industrialized much later than Western Europe Absolute monarchy prevented necessary reforms Rise of revolutionary movements

43 Russian Society

44 Reaction to Marxism Lenin (1870-1924) Original name Vladimir Ulyanov
Became leader of the Bolsheviks, a Marxist revolutionary group

45 Lenin

46 Reaction to Marxism Russia Revolution of 1905 Government reforms

47 Revolution of 1905

48 Late 19th Century European Thought
Science becomes dominant in European society State becomes in charge of education

49 Chemistry Class, 1899

50 Late 19th Century European Thought
Culture Art Literature Music Philosophy

51 Arearea, Paul Gauguin

52 Conclusion Industrialization continues to affect European society
Women begin to demand equal rights Governments react to Marxism in different ways Industrialization affects European culture

Download ppt "Late Nineteenth Century European Thought and Society"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google