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Late Nineteenth Century European Thought and Society 1870-1900.

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2 Late Nineteenth Century European Thought and Society 1870-1900

3 The Second Industrial Revolution Began in the 1850s First Industrial Revolution Steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil Internal combustion engine Consumer society

4 Marshall Fields Department Store, 1890

5 European Railroads 1870-1914

6 Iron and Steel Production 1875-1915

7 European GNP 1830-1913

8 Early Automobile, 1899

9 The Second Industrial Revolution Depression of 1873 European economies expanded 1850-73 Technological advances lower food costs Competition slows down economy Bad investments cause banks to fail

10 Impact of industrialisation – on public health & prevention & cure of disease

11 Living & working conditions overcrowding - spreads disease; Houses built close to factories - pollution houses built back-to-back: diseases spread more easily Dirty streets = garbage in streets = disease Polluted water = cholera Factories/machinery very dangerous – many accidents (incl. for children) Long hours; severe punishments – very young children worked about 12 hours Factories = badly lit & ventilated; windows closed; breathing in dust & cotton fibres

12 Common diseases Smallpox Cholera TB Diptheria Influenza etc

13 Recognition by government of problems (Actions taken by government): 1848 Public Health Act Set up a system to encourage – but not force – local authorities to improve conditions in their area Allowed local authorities to make improvements if they wanted to & if ratepayers gave them their support Enabled local authorities to borrow money to pay for the improvements 1875 Public Health Act became law for all local councils to provide clean water, proper drainage & sewage Had to appoint a Medical Officer of Health Other public health actions: 1852 – government makes vaccinations compulsory = direct action to improve health of people 1876 – govt passes laws against pollution of rivers & introduces food regulations

14 Edwin Chadwick

15 Significance: He made suggestions to the Poor Law Commission Wrote his findings in a report called Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population in 1842 Concluded that poverty was due to poor health conditions Recommended: Improve drainage Remove refuse from streets Improve water supplies Appoint Medical Officer to help improve health of poor people Government finally responds to Chadwicks report – leads to passing of 1848 Public Health Act

16 Louis Pasteur

17 The fight against disease: GERM THEORY

18 Definition: Theory that micro-organism called germs cause disease

19 middle class property owners vs. working class old alliances that produced revolutions dissolved revolutions in West become obsolete industrial consolidation 1850-1914 rise of socialism adjustments to industrial life stable populations children valued material conditions improve peasants improve lives labor movements

20 Political Trends cautious change Britain – vote to working-class males 1867 Prussia – vote to all adult males conservatives use nationalism to win support united: Italy Germany (1871) most Western nations have parliamentary systems - basic liberties protected - political parties peacefully contest for office key political issues reduced

21 New Government Functions expand civil service exams school systems welfare systems set up government & citizen contact with each other rise of socialism - Karl Marx revisionists support parliamentary democracy to achieve goals

22 feminist movements late 1800s Cultural Change higher wages increased leisure time - pleasure part of life consumption encouraged (factory capacity) mass leisure culture - rise of team sports - growing secularism advances in scientific knowledge - continues tradition of rationalism - Darwin, Einstein, Freud

23 What changes in social organization did industrialization cause? movement of people to cities young adults moving from families cities crowded, dirty, crime new social divisions – middle class move away from cities work separate from family work unpleasant, fast, monotonous factory work stressful popular leisure changes middleclass family – wife stay home with children, husband goes to work womens sphere separate women & children sheltered from work world education now important for children

24 How did government functions increase in response to the social question? civil service exams regulations – safety, health, personal travel, schooling expands (compulsory to age 12) expand public secondary schools wider welfare measures measures to aid unemployment

25 How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850? SCIENCE rationalist tradition apply science to practical affairs link science & technology combine science & medicine Darwins theory physics Einstein – theory of relativity Freud – human subconscious ART Dickens – realistic portrayals of human problems some painters build on discoveries of science romanticism – emotion & impression (not reason & generalization) were keys to human experience portray passions empathy with nature try to violate traditional Western standards abstract, atonal

26 The Second Industrial Revolution Middle Class (bourgeoisie) continues to expand Rise of white collar workers (petite bourgeoisie)

27 Upper Middle Class Society

28 The Second Industrial Revolution Urbanization continues late 19 th century Governments introduce urban planning

29 Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Still considered property of husbands and fathers Educational opportunities finally available by late 1800s

30 Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Middle Class women Cult of Domesticity Middle class women begin to have fewer children

31 English Middle Class Women

32 Women in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Rise of Womens movement Women demand reforms in public health and working conditions

33 Womens Suffrage Movement

34 Jews in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Discrimination against Jews for most of European history Emancipation Rise of Anti-Semitism Zionist Movement

35 Theodore Herzl, founder of the Zionist movement

36 Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West. pre-industrialization, social order based on peasantry, aristocracy & the church post – industrialization, aristocracy & church lose power social status based on wealth liberals sought political power that went with economic power of middle class (limited, constitutional government) radicals & socialists want power extended to working class, extension of voting rights all manipulated by conservative politicians often through nationalism.

37 Workers in Late Nineteenth Century Europe Workers demand better working conditions Workers gain voting rights throughout most of Europe

38 Reaction to Marxism Marxism spreads throughout Europe International Working Mens Association Calls for government ownership of industries

39 Reaction to Marxism Britain Unions become legal in 1880s Fabian Society

40 Reaction to Marxism France Marxism a great influence on French labor movements French workers resorted to strikes

41 Reaction to Marxism Germany Social Democratic Party Bismarck considered Social Democrats a threat Social legislation passed in 1883

42 German Socialists

43 Reaction to Marxism Russia Industrialized much later than Western Europe Absolute monarchy prevented necessary reforms Rise of revolutionary movements

44 Russian Society

45 Reaction to Marxism Lenin (1870-1924) Original name Vladimir Ulyanov Became leader of the Bolsheviks, a Marxist revolutionary group

46 Lenin

47 Reaction to Marxism Russia Revolution of 1905 Government reforms

48 Revolution of 1905

49 Late 19 th Century European Thought Science becomes dominant in European society State becomes in charge of education

50 Chemistry Class, 1899

51 Late 19 th Century European Thought Culture Art Literature Music Philosophy

52 Arearea, Paul Gauguin

53 Conclusion Industrialization continues to affect European society Women begin to demand equal rights Governments react to Marxism in different ways Industrialization affects European culture

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