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Ideological Conflict and National Unification, 1815-1871 The West CHAPTER 21.

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Presentation on theme: "Ideological Conflict and National Unification, 1815-1871 The West CHAPTER 21."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ideological Conflict and National Unification, 1815-1871 The West CHAPTER 21

2 Liberalism Promoted the foundation and protection of individual rights, the extension of voting rights to all male property owners, and free trade Favored constitutional monarchy as the ideal government Located its greatest support in the urban middle class

3 Conservatism Sought to preserve monarchy and aristocracy against liberal and national ideas Defended the established order, as the product of gradual change Considered rights to be hereditary privileges and Christianity to be the basis of society Concert of Europe - a conservative alliance against liberal and revolutionary movements

4 Socialism Developed in reaction to industrial capitalism Promoted communal ownership of means of production, social and economic equality, and universal male suffrage Marx and Engels developed communism as a revolutionary, socialist ideology, based upon a material philosophy of history

5 Nationalism Promoted the idea that national and state borders should correspond - that every nation should have its own state The nation was a myth, and the idea of the nation-state was virtually unrealizable Nationalist ideas could work in conjunction with both liberalism and conservatism

6 Culture and Ideology Scientific rationalism proposed that society could be improved by science and reason The values of science and progress appealed to liberals and to Marxist communism Romanticism recognized the limits of human reason and emphasized the emotional and spiritual aspects of reality Romantic ideas appealed especially to nationalist movements

7 Liberal and Nationalist Revolts, 1820-1825 Liberal revolts in Spain, Portugal and Russia failed in the face of domestic and international conservative opposition Nationalist revolt in Greece, against Ottoman rule, succeeded with European support The Concert of Europe opposed Spanish liberalism, but supported Greek nationalism

8 Liberal and Nationalist Revolts, 1830 Liberal revolution, in France, instituted a constitutional monarchy With international support, Belgium achieved independence from the Netherlands Polish nationalist rebellion ended in failure and the abolition of Poland’s autonomy from Russia

9 Liberal Reforms in Britain, 1815-1848 Liberals in Britain achieved great success, without revolutionary action Parliament was reformed and the franchise extended to all male property owners, 1832 Legal discrimination against Catholics and Protestant non-conformists was ended, 1829-1830 Protectionist corn laws were repealed, 1845 Socialists and radicals achieved comparatively little success in Britain

10 The Revolutions of 1848 Liberal and nationalist revolutions, in France, Germany, the Habsburg Empire, and Italy, all failed Conservative forces soon repealed the initial liberal successes Divisions between liberal and popular visions of reform, and between liberal and nationalist goals, undermined all the revolutionary movements

11 Italian Unification: Building a Fragile Nation-State The kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia provided effective leadership for unification Achieved political unification through military and diplomatic efforts - Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi Failed to create a strong, centralized, and culturally uniform state Local loyalties, banditry and Mafia power undermined the new state

12 German Unification Kingdom of Prussia provided leadership for unification - Otto von Bismarck Achieved unification through military and political power German unification was achieved through Prussian supremacy over other states Created a highly centralized, autocratic empire

13 Unification in the United States In the early nineteenth century, the US became more culturally diverse, inhibiting the growth of nationalist sentiment Northern victory in the civil war preserved and strengthened the union Growth of railroads fueled social and economic unification Emergence of the concept that the US was a “nation of nations”

14 Nationalism in Eastern Europe Nation-states did not emerge in Eastern Europe The large, multinational Habsburg and Russian empires endured, by repressing nationalist sentiments Establishment of the Dual Monarchy of Austria- Hungary, 1867, gave concessions only to Magyar and German national identities

15 Ideology, Empire and the Balance of Power Monroe Doctrine, 1823, created the concept of two separate and independent spheres - Europe and America - and supported liberal and nationalist ideologies Crimean War (1853-1856) (1870-1871) preserved the balance of power in Europe and prompted liberal reforms in Russia Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) led to the establishment of the conservative Third French Republic

16 The Ideological Transformation of the West Ideological competition fueled significant changes in political culture, as ideologies were adjusted and redefined to meet political realities These nineteenth century Western ideologies endured into the twentieth century, and demonstrated an ability to shape and adapt to diverse non-Western circumstances

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