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Demographic Trends in European History

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Presentation on theme: "Demographic Trends in European History"— Presentation transcript:

1 Demographic Trends in European History
AP European History Demographic Trends in European History

2 Late Medieval Family Trends (1250-1300)
Married young due to short average life span of 35 years. Lived in extended families in which the old were cared for by younger relatives. Large families were needed to work in the fields.

3 Late Medieval Population Trends
Population growth was small due to a high birth rate and a high death rate. Population trends depended upon crops and disease.

4 Late Medieval Class Trends
Western Europe: the four existing classes were clergy, nobility, peasants/serfs, & merchants/skilled artisans. Eastern Europe: the three existing classes were clergy, nobility, & peasants/serfs.

5 Late Medieval Production Trends
Agricultural economy dominated Europe. Some small artisans existed, as needed. A growing merchant class began to emerge by the end of this period.

6 Late Medieval Gender Trends
Men dominated society and family life. Only men & royal women went to school. A woman’s only outlet for educational & social growth was to become a nun. Women of the nobility were expected to coordinate activities on the estate. Poor women were expected to work in the fields and take care of their households.

7 Renaissance Family Trends (1350-1550)
Similar to the Medieval Period. Married young due to short average life span of years. Still lived in extended families in which the old were cared for by younger relatives. Large families still were needed to work in the fields.

8 Renaissance Population Trends
Population growth was still small due to a high birth rate and a high death rate. Population trends depended upon crops, disease, and war.

9 Renaissance Class Trends
Eastern Europe: existing three classes were the clergy, nobility, & peasants/serfs. Western Europe: clergy, nobility, merchants (beg. of the modern middle class), peasants, serfs, and artisans (who become the urban working class).

10 Renaissance Production Trends
Agricultural Economy Beginning of International Trade Skilled artisans start to become important in towns.

11 Renaissance Gender Trends
Women’s roles in Catholic areas remained the same as in the medieval period. In Protestant areas, women could not become nuns, so higher education was almost completely eliminated for women.

12 Early Modern Family Trends (1500-1700)
Age of marriage rose due to the need to establish a trade to support a family. Families still lived in extended groups either on farms or in cottage industries.

13 Early Modern Population Trends
Steady but slow growth of the population, except during the Thirty Years’ War. High birth & death rates still existed.

14 Early Modern Class Trends
Class structures remained essentially the same, but the middle class was growing much more powerful in both size and economic clout.

15 Early Modern Production Trends
Agricultural Economy Cottage Industries began to dominate production in W. Europe by about 1600. Merchant trade and shipping was very important in nations on the Atlantic seaboard.

16 Early Modern Gender Trends
More educational opportunities for women in merchant class or upper class homes. Even upper class women were rarely allowed to go to the universities. Those families who could afford higher education for their daughters sent them to finishing school.

17 18th Century Family Trends
Europe outside of England remained the same as the early modern period. England was different by the end of the century due to the Industrial Revolution. In England, families who moved to the city became fragmented due to the factory system. No longer did they all work at the same place & see each other all day long. In England, many elderly persons died with no one to care for them.

18 18th Century Population Trends
High population growth all over Europe, because more family members meant more income, both on the farm and at the factory.

19 18th Century Class Trends
Eastern & Central Europe: Same as previous periods. France: Still 3 estates, but the middle class brought an end to this in the revolution. England: the landed aristocracy controlled it politically, the middle class controlled it economically, & the urban workers were exploited. England was a “squirarchy.”

20 18th Century Production Trends
Agricultural economy with many cottage industries in the west. In England, the growth of the factory system after 1750 revolutionized production and transportation.

21 18th Century Gender Trends
Eastern & Central Europe remained the same. England: more education for all children, & upper class women can go to college to study liberal arts. England: lower class women exploited in factories & some became wet nurses or prostitutes to make a living. England: Women became more independent and could inherit property without remarriage.

22 19th Century Family Trends
Continued family fragmentation in urban areas, while rural families remained the same. Age of marriage dropped in urban areas.

23 19th Century Population Trends
Fast population growth as the death rate began to fall due to better medicine, sanitation, etc. The birth rate began to fall by the end of the century, but not the overall population growth rate.

24 19th Century Class Trends
Western Europe began to resemble England, due to industrialization. Western Europe began to have a split between the upper and lower middle class. Eastern Europe remained feudal in character.

25 19th Century Production Trends
Factory system all over Western Europe Cottage industries began in Central Europe Eastern Europe & Russia remained agricultural.

26 19th Century Production Trends
Industrial diversification all over Europe. Tremendous growth in technology, transportation, and communications, especially in Western Europe.

27 19th Century Gender Trends
Women still working to achieve equal rights, but much progress has been made.

28 19th Century Gender Trends
Women still dominated legally by their husbands, even in Western Europe. Women in Western nations actively attempted to achieve women’s suffrage. Women held many “pink-collar” jobs.

29 1900-1960 Family Trends Nuclear Families Smaller Families
Women gained more power in families, but working mothers were still frowned upon.

30 1900-1960 Population Trends Birth Rate dropped.
Population growth slowed in Western Europe, but not in Eastern Europe.

31 Class Trends Legal differences between classes disappeared after WWI and the Russian Revolution, but inequality existed economically & politically. Communist party elites became the “new nobility” of Eastern Europe & the USSR.

32 Production Trends Industrialization of the USSR & parts of Eastern Europe occurred. Strong industrial base existed in Western Europe. Production was disrupted by two world wars. Eastern Europe remained predominantly agricultural.

33 Gender Trends Women gained voting rights as a result of WWI in most nations of Europe. Women began to work for equal rights in society & the workplace.

34 1960-Present Family Trends
More women working, otherwise the same as Birth control pills gave women more control over reproductive issues. Smaller families resulted.

35 1960-Present Population Trends
Very slow, almost zero population growth rate in Europe.

36 1960-Present Class Trends Class inequalities are based on wealth and political power.

37 1960-Present Production Trends

38 1960-Present Gender Trends

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