Presentation on theme: "Liberals: stressed limited state interference in individual life; representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional."— Presentation transcript:
Liberals: stressed limited state interference in individual life; representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule & parliaments Nationalists: importance of national unity; valued collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin Ex: Otto von Bismarck, unified Germany in 1871
Radicals: basically extreme liberals, argued for even broader voting rights; some advocated for out-right democracy; urged reforms for lower classes Maximilien Robespierre, Radical leader of France
Conservatives: 19 th century conservatives were most likely to support traditional European institutions, such as the church, aristocracy, monarchy, empire-building, & colonization; the rise of so many liberal factions caused conservatives to compromise; cons tried hard to slow down the changes & revolutions occurring Klemens von Metternich, Chairman at the Congress Of Vienna
The Revolutions of 1848
Who is spared???
The Revs of 1848 were unorganized and chaotic, and many groups participated Nationalists protested for the unification for new nations (Germany & Italy) Socialists protested for better working conditions and social reforms Liberals & radicals protested for greater participation in government/end of monarchies Conservatives, of course, tried to repress the revolts
Background Britain’s Reform Bill of 1832: extended the vote to most members of the middle-class in Britain 1832 Reform Bill encouraged liberals and revolutionaries in Europe : bad harvest & financial crisis causes unrest in France. Boy howdy, don’t that sound like a broken record?
Beginning of Revolutions Popular uprising in Feb 1848 in France; overthrows monarchy & democratic republic created; workers protested for quasi-socialist government Spreads to Germany, Italy, Austria, & Hungary; liberals draft constitutions to limit monarchs & nationalists sought greater autonomy for their regions/nations; peasants wanted end to manorialism
Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1848
German Confederation, 1848
Results Revolutions were largely a failure Conservatives & middle-class liberals joined forces to put-down worker rebellions Austrian & Prussian (German) armies ended the dreams of nationalists Napoleon III comes to power in France (seriously) and is emperor from Peasants achieve success, as serfdom is abolished in west & central Europe
Results (continued) Taught revolutionaries that violence was too risky and did not work; liberals, radicals, & socialists would use more gradual & moderate methods in the future Last major revolutions in European history (although there were those world wars) After 1850, increased industrialization made bad harvests and food crises far less likely Industrial class structure: wealthy businessmen were > old aristocracy