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Ecology Unit. Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment. Organisms depend.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology Unit. Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment. Organisms depend."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology Unit

2 Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment. Organisms depend in some way on other living and nonliving organisms.

3 Interdependence Interdependence- Dependence on each other or one another Examples: – Hare and lynx – Hare and grasses/shrubs – Birds and insects


5 Levels of Organization

6 Biosphere- – broadest; earth and atmosphere that supports life

7 Levels of Organization Ecosystem- – all of the organisms and nonliving environment found in a particular place

8 Levels of Organization Community- – all interacting organisms living in an area

9 Levels of Organization Population- – members of a species that live in one place at a time

10 Levels of Organization Organism- – individual

11 Ecology of Organisms Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors – Biotic- living factors in the environment Ex. Plants, animals – Abiotic- non-living factors in the environment Ex. Climate, soil

12 Ecology of Organisms Niche – The specific role, or way of life of a species within its environment What is the difference between a habitat and a niche?

13 Exit Slip 1.An ecosystem contains? 2.Hunting season on deer increases the amount of grass/shrubs is an example of? (word for things depending on one another) 3.A biotic factor in a pond is? Abiotic factor?

14 Ecology of Organisms Conformers- do not regulate their internal conditions Regulators- use energy to control some of their internal conditions

15 Ecology of Organisms Two ways species can escape unfavorable conditions: – 1. Dormancy- state of reduced activity – – 2. Migration- Move to a more favorable habitat

16 Ecology of Organisms Generalists – Organisms forage on a variety of food; feed on what is available Specialists – Focus on a specific food source

17 Species Interactions Predation – Predator- organism preys on other organisms – Prey- animal taken by predator as food Examples?

18 Why are these animals fast or camouflage?

19 Adaptations Predator Adaptations – Adaptations that help predators acquire food Chemical – Rattlesnack vs. Rat Rattlesnack vs. Rat Camouflage – Chameleon Chameleon Speed – Cheetah Cheetah

20 Prey Adaptations Adaptations that increase chance of survival Chemical Combat Camouflage Speed Mimicry Jesus Lizard

21 Mimicry

22 Prey Adaptations Mimicry Batesian – Harmless species mimics a harmful species – Octopus Defense Octopus Defense Mullerian – Two or more species share similar warning colors or attributes

23 Exit Slip 1)What are two ways carbon enters the atmosphere? 2)How is carbon removed from the atmosphere? 3)Give one example of a predator adaptation and one prey adaptation. 4)What is the difference in Mullerian and Batesian Mimicry?

24 Plant Adaptations DefenseCatching Prey Venus Fly Trap

25 What is happening here?

26 Competition Interspecific – Competition among members of different species Ex. Lions and Cheetahs – Prey on the same food (one will have less food)

27 What is happening here?

28 Competition Intraspecific – Competition among members of the same species Ex. Trees of same species competing for light, nutrients Ex. Deer fighting for territory and mates


30 Symbiotic relationship Parasitism  – One organism benefits, the other is harmed – Ticks and humans/animals


32 Symbiotic Relationship Mutualism – Both organisms benefit – Birds cleaning teeth


34 Symbiotic Relationship Commensalism  – One organism benefits, the other is unaffected – Shark and remora fish

35 Review 1. Example of a biotic and abiotic factor on a farm. 2. What is the niche of a turkey? 3. What is interdependence?

36 Energy Transfer Producers – Autotrophs- manufacture food for themselves Ex. Plants, Bacteria Consumers – Heterotrophs- get energy by feeding on other organisms

37 Energy Transfer Types of Consumers – Herbivore-plants only – Carnivore-meat only – Omnivore-both plants and meat – Detrivores-dead plant and animal matter – Decomposer-break down dead and decaying organic matter

38 Ecology of Organisms Generalists Omnivores Specialists Herbivores

39 Energy Transfer Trophic Levels – Position an organism occupies in the food chain – What it eats, and what eats it…

40 Energy Transfer

41 Food Chain vs. Food Web Food Chain Food Web

42 Biomes Tundra – Coldest temps – Very little precipitation – Thin topsoil over permafrost – Mosses, small woody plants

43 Biomes Taiga – Cold – Low in nutrients – Evergreen trees

44 Biomes Temperate Grassland – Good precipitation – Deep layer of topsoil – Rich in nutrients – Most have been transformed to farmland

45 Biomes Savanna – Dry, thin topsoil – Tall grasses – Scattered trees

46 Biomes Chaparral – Little precipitation – Rocky, thin topsoil – Low nutrients – Shrubs and small trees

47 Earth’s Layers The earth is made up of 4 layers: – Biosphere – Atmosphere – Hydrosphere – Geosphere

48 Atmosphere 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen Greenhouse gases

49 Greenhouse Effect 1) Energy from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth’s surface 2) Some of the heat radiates away from earth 3) Some of the heat radiates into space 4) Some heat is absorbed by gases and returned to earth

50 Hydrosphere All of the water on earth Only 3 percent of surface water is freshwater – Most is in the form of glaciers

51 Geosphere The earth’s rock interior Extends from the molten center to the crust

52 Biosphere All parts of the earth where life exists http://www.b2science. org/earth/facility/biom e-desert http://www.b2science. org/earth/facility/biom e-desert

53 Sources – %2BRabbit%2Band%2BLynx%2BCausal%2Band%2BStock%2BFlow%2BDiagrams&usg=__lWaP5LVCmZlSRynJ7b2_zBzqAcI=&h=224&w=392&s z=28&hl=en&start=224&zoom=1&tbnid=IFVkFwA9vR74YM:&tbnh=108&tbnw=189&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsnowshoe%2Bhare%2Band%2Bl ynx%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26rlz%3D1T4ADBF_enUS296US297%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D571%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C5299 &um=1&itbs=1&ei=UNL-TIDMKI28sAO5rriwCw&biw=1276&bih=571&iact=rc&dur=141&oei=CNL-TP6DF8OclgfF- eWSCA&esq=13&page=13&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:224&tx=126&ty=281T4ADBF_enUS296US297%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D571%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C5299 &um=1&itbs=1&ei=UNL-TIDMKI28sAO5rriwCw&biw=1276&bih=571&iact=rc&dur=141&oei=CNL-TP6DF8OclgfF- eWSCA&esq=13&page=13&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:224&tx=126&ty=28 – Pred_Prey_files/image001.jpg&imgrefurl= /Pred_Prey.htm&usg=__GbAcht5lz83puSWi9HP9GbCBfGQ=&h=250&w=333&sz=22&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=t5saEBYTe 1bBzM:&tbnh=123&tbnw=174&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpredator- prey%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4ADBF_enUS296US297%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D571%26tbs%3Disc h:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=124&vpy=107&dur=843&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=149&ty=127&ei=1-7- TIzkB8T68AbozdH2Bw&oei=YO7-TP3hEIGclge4i4msCA&esq=9&page=1&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0 – :// hospital.html&usg=__FEeRZE7FtADZAyrsfcvSRhKxqn4=&h=317&w=468&sz=52&hl=en&start=37&zoom=1&tbnid=Y5uRrsk1l8Stx M:&tbnh=127&tbnw=185&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drattlesnake%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4ADBF_enUS296US297% 26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D571%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C885&um=1&itbs=1&ei=Afj- TIOAPYKs8Aa52s31Dg&iact=hc&vpx=143&vpy=148&dur=438&hovh=159&hovw=234&tx=162&ty=66&oei=dPf- TOKHDoP6lwedpJCTCA&esq=29&page=3&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:37&biw=1259&bih=571

54 Sources – &imgrefurl= of.html&usg=__f3ePFQBwUiibNgK6jWj3wGzzkqU=&h=400&w=682&sz=74&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=Ro8sRWM51BTc5M:&tbnh=108&tbnw=184&pre v=/images%3Fq%3Dbatesian%2Bmimicry%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4ADBF_enUS296US297%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D571%26tbs%3Disch:10 %2C38&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=679&vpy=217&dur=2312&hovh=172&hovw=293&tx=166&ty=110&ei=rJj_TOX5I4n2swPK57WrDw&oei=rJj_TOX5I4n2sw PK57WrDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0&biw=1259&bih=571:10 %2C38&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=679&vpy=217&dur=2312&hovh=172&hovw=293&tx=166&ty=110&ei=rJj_TOX5I4n2swPK57WrDw&oei=rJj_TOX5I4n2sw PK57WrDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0&biw=1259&bih=571 – books/303%2520Logbook/pages/skeuomorphism.htm&usg=__inoXMUN62N0ywp8m6VBgGVA2G8U=&h=195&w=347&sz=34&hl=en&start=116&zoom=1&t bnid=nrFlRP8bdJVxeM:&tbnh=96&tbnw=170&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmullerian%2Bmimicry%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4ADBF_enUS296US297% 26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D571%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C2791&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=956&vpy=320&dur=312&hovh=156&hovw=277&tx=187&ty=115&e i=QZn_TIjbHYH6swOy5s2vCw&oei=H5n_TIDPForCsAOZrdmrCw&esq=6&page=7&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:19,s:116&biw=1259&bih=57 – plover.jpg&imgrefurl= XeH0CD9HSOJVPXCMQpLaiCNX4o=&h=445&w=640&sz=82&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=S7XBZHVxbUST5M:&tbnh=137&tbnw=178&prev=/images%3Fq %3Dbirds%2Bcleaning%2Bgator%2Bteeth%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26gl%3Dus%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D571%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc& vpx=121&vpy=80&dur=750&hovh=187&hovw=269&tx=209&ty=76&ei=2aT_TO_bOMWAlAf7npmXCA&oei=2aT_TO_bOMWAlAf7npmXCA&esq=1&page=1& ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0=1&itbs=1&iact=hc& vpx=121&vpy=80&dur=750&hovh=187&hovw=269&tx=209&ty=76&ei=2aT_TO_bOMWAlAf7npmXCA&oei=2aT_TO_bOMWAlAf7npmXCA&esq=1&page=1& ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0 – – –

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