Presentation on theme: "Ecology Unit. Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment. Organisms depend."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment. Organisms depend in some way on other living and nonliving organisms.
Interdependence Interdependence- Dependence on each other or one another Examples: – Hare and lynx – Hare and grasses/shrubs – Birds and insects
Levels of Organization
Biosphere- – broadest; earth and atmosphere that supports life
Levels of Organization Ecosystem- – all of the organisms and nonliving environment found in a particular place
Levels of Organization Community- – all interacting organisms living in an area
Levels of Organization Population- – members of a species that live in one place at a time
Levels of Organization Organism- – individual
Ecology of Organisms Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors – Biotic- living factors in the environment Ex. Plants, animals – Abiotic- non-living factors in the environment Ex. Climate, soil
Ecology of Organisms Niche – The specific role, or way of life of a species within its environment What is the difference between a habitat and a niche?
Exit Slip 1.An ecosystem contains? 2.Hunting season on deer increases the amount of grass/shrubs is an example of? (word for things depending on one another) 3.A biotic factor in a pond is? Abiotic factor?
Ecology of Organisms Conformers- do not regulate their internal conditions Regulators- use energy to control some of their internal conditions
Ecology of Organisms Two ways species can escape unfavorable conditions: – 1. Dormancy- state of reduced activity – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzz9LZ554NM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzz9LZ554NM – 2. Migration- Move to a more favorable habitat
Ecology of Organisms Generalists – Organisms forage on a variety of food; feed on what is available Specialists – Focus on a specific food source
Species Interactions Predation – Predator- organism preys on other organisms – Prey- animal taken by predator as food Examples?
Why are these animals fast or camouflage?
Adaptations Predator Adaptations – Adaptations that help predators acquire food Chemical – Rattlesnack vs. Rat Rattlesnack vs. Rat Camouflage – Chameleon Chameleon Speed – Cheetah Cheetah
Prey Adaptations Adaptations that increase chance of survival Chemical Combat Camouflage Speed Mimicry Jesus Lizard
Prey Adaptations Mimicry Batesian – Harmless species mimics a harmful species – Octopus Defense Octopus Defense Mullerian – Two or more species share similar warning colors or attributes
Exit Slip 1)What are two ways carbon enters the atmosphere? 2)How is carbon removed from the atmosphere? 3)Give one example of a predator adaptation and one prey adaptation. 4)What is the difference in Mullerian and Batesian Mimicry?
Symbiotic Relationship Commensalism – One organism benefits, the other is unaffected – Shark and remora fish
Review 1. Example of a biotic and abiotic factor on a farm. 2. What is the niche of a turkey? 3. What is interdependence?
Energy Transfer Producers – Autotrophs- manufacture food for themselves Ex. Plants, Bacteria Consumers – Heterotrophs- get energy by feeding on other organisms
Energy Transfer Types of Consumers – Herbivore-plants only – Carnivore-meat only – Omnivore-both plants and meat – Detrivores-dead plant and animal matter – Decomposer-break down dead and decaying organic matter
Ecology of Organisms Generalists Omnivores Specialists Herbivores
Energy Transfer Trophic Levels – Position an organism occupies in the food chain – What it eats, and what eats it…
Food Chain vs. Food Web Food Chain Food Web
Biomes Tundra – Coldest temps – Very little precipitation – Thin topsoil over permafrost – Mosses, small woody plants
Biomes Taiga – Cold – Low in nutrients – Evergreen trees
Biomes Temperate Grassland – Good precipitation – Deep layer of topsoil – Rich in nutrients – Most have been transformed to farmland
Greenhouse Effect 1) Energy from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth’s surface 2) Some of the heat radiates away from earth 3) Some of the heat radiates into space 4) Some heat is absorbed by gases and returned to earth
Hydrosphere All of the water on earth Only 3 percent of surface water is freshwater – Most is in the form of glaciers
Geosphere The earth’s rock interior Extends from the molten center to the crust
Biosphere All parts of the earth where life exists http://www.b2science. org/earth/facility/biom e-desert http://www.b2science. org/earth/facility/biom e-desert