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Ecology Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology Unit

2 Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment. Organisms depend in some way on other living and nonliving organisms.

3 Interdependence Interdependence- Dependence on each other or one another Examples: Hare and lynx Hare and grasses/shrubs Birds and insects


5 Levels of Organization

6 Levels of Organization
Biosphere- broadest; earth and atmosphere that supports life

7 Levels of Organization
Ecosystem- all of the organisms and nonliving environment found in a particular place

8 Levels of Organization
Community- all interacting organisms living in an area

9 Levels of Organization
Population- members of a species that live in one place at a time

10 Levels of Organization
Organism- individual

11 Ecology of Organisms Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
Biotic- living factors in the environment Ex. Plants, animals Abiotic- non-living factors in the environment Ex. Climate, soil

12 Ecology of Organisms Niche
The specific role, or way of life of a species within its environment What is the difference between a habitat and a niche?

13 Exit Slip An ecosystem contains?
Hunting season on deer increases the amount of grass/shrubs is an example of? (word for things depending on one another) A biotic factor in a pond is? Abiotic factor?

14 Ecology of Organisms Conformers- do not regulate their internal conditions Regulators- use energy to control some of their internal conditions

15 Ecology of Organisms Two ways species can escape unfavorable conditions: 1. Dormancy- state of reduced activity 2. Migration- Move to a more favorable habitat

16 Ecology of Organisms Generalists Specialists
Organisms forage on a variety of food; feed on what is available Specialists Focus on a specific food source

17 Species Interactions Predation
Predator- organism preys on other organisms Prey- animal taken by predator as food Examples?

18 Why are these animals fast or camouflage?
Looking for students to say they are adaptations to catch prey, or avoid predators. They are adaptations to allow the to survive.

19 Adaptations Predator Adaptations
Adaptations that help predators acquire food Chemical Rattlesnack vs. Rat Camouflage Chameleon Speed Cheetah

20 Jesus Lizard Adaptations that increase chance of survival
Prey Adaptations Jesus Lizard Adaptations that increase chance of survival Chemical Combat Camouflage Speed Mimicry

21 Mimicry What are the differences between the organisms?
One snake is venomous, the other is not? What does it look the same? One butterfly tastes bad to predators so they don’t eat it, the other butterfly tastes good to predators. Why do they look the same?

22 Prey Adaptations Mimicry
Batesian Harmless species mimics a harmful species Octopus Defense Mullerian Two or more species share similar warning colors or attributes

23 Exit Slip What are two ways carbon enters the atmosphere?
How is carbon removed from the atmosphere? Give one example of a predator adaptation and one prey adaptation. What is the difference in Mullerian and Batesian Mimicry?

24 Plant Adaptations Defense Catching Prey Venus Fly Trap

25 What is happening here? Two DIFFERENT species competing over food (interspecific competition)

26 Competition Interspecific
Competition among members of different species Ex. Lions and Cheetahs Prey on the same food (one will have less food)

27 What is happening here? Animals of the SAME species competing over something. Likely territory in this case. (Intraspecific Competition)

28 Competition Intraspecific
Competition among members of the same species Ex. Trees of same species competing for light, nutrients Ex. Deer fighting for territory and mates

29 Who is benefiting in this interaction. Who is harmed
Who is benefiting in this interaction? Who is harmed? Or do both benefit?

30 Symbiotic relationship
Parasitism   One organism benefits, the other is harmed Ticks and humans/animals

31 Who is benefiting in this interaction. Who is harmed
Who is benefiting in this interaction? Who is harmed? Or do both benefit?

32 Symbiotic Relationship
Mutualism   Both organisms benefit Birds cleaning teeth


34 Symbiotic Relationship
Commensalism   One organism benefits, the other is unaffected Shark and remora fish Who is benefiting in this interaction? Who is harmed? Or do both benefit?

35 Review 1. Example of a biotic and abiotic factor on a farm.
2. What is the niche of a turkey? 3. What is interdependence?

36 Energy Transfer Producers Consumers
Autotrophs- manufacture food for themselves Ex. Plants, Bacteria Consumers Heterotrophs- get energy by feeding on other organisms

37 Energy Transfer Types of Consumers Herbivore-plants only
Carnivore-meat only Omnivore-both plants and meat Detrivores-dead plant and animal matter Decomposer-break down dead and decaying organic matter

38 Ecology of Organisms Generalists Specialists Omnivores Herbivores

39 Energy Transfer Trophic Levels
Position an organism occupies in the food chain What it eats, and what eats it…

40 Energy Transfer

41 Food Chain vs. Food Web Food Chain Food Web

42 Biomes Tundra Coldest temps Very little precipitation
Thin topsoil over permafrost Mosses, small woody plants

43 Biomes Taiga Cold Low in nutrients Evergreen trees

44 Biomes Temperate Grassland Good precipitation Deep layer of topsoil
Rich in nutrients Most have been transformed to farmland

45 Biomes Savanna Dry, thin topsoil Tall grasses Scattered trees

46 Biomes Chaparral Little precipitation Rocky, thin topsoil
Low nutrients Shrubs and small trees

47 Earth’s Layers The earth is made up of 4 layers: Biosphere Atmosphere
Hydrosphere Geosphere

48 Atmosphere 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen Greenhouse gases

49 Greenhouse Effect 1) Energy from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth’s surface 2) Some of the heat radiates away from earth 3) Some of the heat radiates into space 4) Some heat is absorbed by gases and returned to earth

50 Hydrosphere All of the water on earth
Only 3 percent of surface water is freshwater Most is in the form of glaciers

51 Geosphere The earth’s rock interior
Extends from the molten center to the crust

52 Biosphere All parts of the earth where life exists

53 Sources

54 Sources

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