Presentation on theme: "Ecology Chapter 3 Ecology Branch of biology that developed from natural history."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology Chapter 3
Ecology Branch of biology that developed from natural history
Ecology DEF: Interaction between an organism and its environment Combination of chemistry, physics, geology, biology
Biosphere Biosphere Portion of Earth that supports life Extends high in the atmosphere to bottom of oceans
Biosphere Consists of living and non-living organisms within the environment non-living organisms within the environment
Biosphere Biosphere Abiotic Factors - non- living things Biotic Factors - all living things
Population Group of organisms from one species Live in the same place at the same time & interbreed
Population Compete for food, water, mates, etc. *Resource sharing determines how large and far apart populations are
Community Contains several interacting populations Change in one population will cause change in other populations
Ecosystem Interaction among populations in a community and the community’s physical surroundings (abiotic factors)
Ecosystem DIFFERENT TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS: Terrestrial - forests, meadows, desert
Ecosystem DIFFERENT TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS: Aquatic - (2 types) Freshwater - ponds, lakes, streams Salt water - marine
Aldo Leopold A Sand County Almanac Jan 11, 1887 to to April 21, 1948 “The land is a community is the basic concept of ecology, but that land is to be loved and respected is an extension of ethics.” Aldo Leopold Aldo Leopold
Recap... Organism - 1 animal (species) Population - several animals of same species Community - more than 1 species Ecosystem - biotic and abiotic factors within area Biome - group of ecosystems Biosphere - Earth
ENERGY.. Primary Producers Primary Producers Primary Producers 1. Producers - Autotrophs - use energy from sun or chemical compounds to make own food and nutrients
2. Consumers - Heterotrophs - depend on autotrophs for energy ENERGY...
Types of Heterotrophs: a. Herbivore - feeds only on plants b. Carnivore - feeds on other heterotrophs Scavenger - feed on dead animals Scavenger - feed on dead animals c. Omnivore - feeds on both plant and animal
3. Decomposers - (aka - detrivores) - Break down and absorb nutrients from dead animals - Break down complex compounds into simple ones ENERGY...
FOOD CHAIN... Used to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem Autotrophs Heterotrophs Decomposers
Contains 3 to 5 “links” in length Example: algae fish heron Energy decreases after each link *some may be lost as HEAT FOOD CHAIN...
FOOD WEB... Interconnected food chains Shows all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level More realistic than food chain because animals eat more than 1 species 4Ecological Interactions Ecological InteractionsEcological Interactions
Predator or Prey Game Predator or Prey Game
Habitat Place where organisms live out life Can change due to natural or human causes Made up of food, shelter, other essential resources
Niche A role and position a species has in its environment Includes interactions with biotic and abiotic factors of habitat Individuality reduces competition with other species
Relationships... Predator - animals that kill and eat others Prey - animals that the predators eat
Relationships.... Symbiosis – close & permanent association between organisms Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism Parasitism
Commensalism One benefits, other not harmed or benefited
Commensalism Trees & moss Clown fish & sea anemones
Mutualism Both benefit Acacia tree & Ants page 69 Ants & aphids Lichen
Parasitism One benefits at others expense Ticks & fleas Tapeworms & roundworms
Questions to think about... Do nutrients cycle through a food chain? YES - decomposers return nutrients to soil
Does energy cycle through a food chain? NO - the sun provides the energy that drives the food chain Questions to think about...