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Ecology Chapter 3 Ecology Branch of biology that developed from natural history.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology Chapter 3 Ecology Branch of biology that developed from natural history."— Presentation transcript:


2 Ecology Chapter 3

3 Ecology Branch of biology that developed from natural history

4 Ecology  DEF: Interaction between an organism and its environment  Combination of chemistry, physics, geology, biology

5 Biosphere Biosphere  Portion of Earth that supports life  Extends high in the atmosphere to bottom of oceans

6 Biosphere  Consists of living and non-living organisms within the environment non-living organisms within the environment

7 Biosphere Biosphere Abiotic Factors - non- living things Biotic Factors - all living things

8 Biosphere 2


10 Population  Group of organisms from one species  Live in the same place at the same time & interbreed

11 Population Compete for food, water, mates, etc. *Resource sharing determines how large and far apart populations are

12 Community  Contains several interacting populations  Change in one population will cause change in other populations

13 Ecosystem  Interaction among populations in a community and the community’s physical surroundings (abiotic factors)

14 Ecosystem  DIFFERENT TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS:  Terrestrial - forests, meadows, desert

15 Ecosystem  DIFFERENT TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS:  Aquatic - (2 types) Freshwater - ponds, lakes, streams Salt water - marine

16 Aldo Leopold A Sand County Almanac Jan 11, 1887 to to April 21, 1948 “The land is a community is the basic concept of ecology, but that land is to be loved and respected is an extension of ethics.” Aldo Leopold Aldo Leopold

17 Recap... Organism - 1 animal (species) Population - several animals of same species Community - more than 1 species Ecosystem - biotic and abiotic factors within area Biome - group of ecosystems Biosphere - Earth

18 ENERGY.. Primary Producers Primary Producers Primary Producers 1. Producers - Autotrophs - use energy from sun or chemical compounds to make own food and nutrients

19 2. Consumers - Heterotrophs - depend on autotrophs for energy ENERGY...

20 Types of Heterotrophs: a. Herbivore - feeds only on plants b. Carnivore - feeds on other heterotrophs Scavenger - feed on dead animals Scavenger - feed on dead animals c. Omnivore - feeds on both plant and animal

21 3. Decomposers - (aka - detrivores) - Break down and absorb nutrients from dead animals - Break down complex compounds into simple ones ENERGY...

22 FOOD CHAIN...  Used to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem  Autotrophs Heterotrophs  Decomposers

23  Contains 3 to 5 “links” in length Example: algae  fish  heron  Energy decreases after each link *some may be lost as HEAT FOOD CHAIN...


25 Producers Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer


27 Trophic Levels OmnivoresCarnivores (aka - Secondary & Tertiary consumers) Herbivores (aka - Primary consumers) Producers

28 FOOD WEB...  Interconnected food chains  Shows all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level  More realistic than food chain because animals eat more than 1 species 4Ecological Interactions Ecological InteractionsEcological Interactions

29 Predator or Prey Game Predator or Prey Game

30 Habitat  Place where organisms live out life  Can change due to natural or human causes  Made up of food, shelter, other essential resources

31 Niche  A role and position a species has in its environment  Includes interactions with biotic and abiotic factors of habitat  Individuality reduces competition with other species

32 Relationships...  Predator - animals that kill and eat others  Prey - animals that the predators eat

33 Relationships....  Symbiosis – close & permanent association between organisms Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism Parasitism

34 Commensalism

35 Mutualism

36 Parasitism

37 Commensalism One benefits, other not harmed or benefited

38 Commensalism Trees & moss Clown fish & sea anemones

39 Mutualism Both benefit Acacia tree & Ants page 69 Ants & aphids Lichen

40 Parasitism One benefits at others expense Ticks & fleas Tapeworms & roundworms

41 Warning




45 Questions to think about... Do nutrients cycle through a food chain? YES - decomposers return nutrients to soil

46 Does energy cycle through a food chain? NO - the sun provides the energy that drives the food chain Questions to think about...

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