6What is the organization of Ecological Study? OrganismPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphere
7Levels of Organization Individual- one organism (living)Ex a moose
8Levels of Organization Population- groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. (living-living same species)Ex many moose
9Levels of Organization Community- groups of different populations (more than one population or different groups of species)Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass (all living)
10Levels of Organization Ecosystem- all organisms in a particular area along with the nonliving. (living and nonliving)Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass, rocks, water, mountains
11Levels of Organization Biome- group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communitiesBiomes: tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannah, temperate grassland, desert, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest (taiga), tundra, mountains and ice caps
12Levels of Organization Biosphere- all of the planet where life exists, includes land, water, and, airLife extends 8 km up and 11 km below the surface
13IN AN ECOSYSTEM:Organisms live in a HabitatOrganisms fit into a Niche of the environment
14Habitat vs. Niche Habitat- an area where an organism lives Niche- an organisms role in its environmentThe Long Version full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. Includes where in the food chain it is, where an organism feedsHabitat is like an address in an ecosystem and a niche is like an occupation in an ecosystem.
15Community Interactions when organisms live together in an ecological community they interact constantly.Three types of interactionsCompetitionPredationSymbiosis
16Competition- competing for resources occurs due to a limited number of resourcesResource- any necessity of life. water, nutrients, light, food.Competitive exclusion principle- no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
17PredationPredation- when an organism captures and feeds on another organism.Predator- hunterPrey- hunted
18SymbiosisSymbiosis- any relationship where two species live closely together. (3 types)MutualismCommensalismParasitism
19Symbiosis Mutualism- both species benefit from a relationship. Lichens (fungus and Algae)One example is the lichens, little non-descript patches of stuff you see growing on rocks and tree bark. This is a symbiosis, consisting of a fungus and an alga. The fungus provides a protective home for the algae, and gathers mineral nutrients from rainwater and from dissolving the rock underneath. The alga gathers energy from the sun. There are thousands of species of lichen in the world; actually thousands of species of fungi with just a few species of algae which can form a partnership with almost any of them.
20SymbiosisCommensalism – One member of a symbiotic relationship benefits and the other is neither helped or harmedEx. Holes used by bluebirds in a tree were chiseled out by woodpeckers after it has been abandoned .
21Symbiosis Parasitism- One creature benefits and one creature is harmed Ex tapeworm. Feeds in a humans intestines absorbing his/her nutrients.
22Relationships:Symbiosis = Living Togethera) commensalismb) mutualismc) parasitism
24Energy Flow (Trophic Levels) Producers- make their own foodConsumers- get energy from consuming producers
25ProducersProducers- capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use the energy to produce food.Producers are autotrophs- they make food from their environment
262 main types of autotrophs Another type gets energy without light- by chemosynthesisOne type gets energy from the sun-by photosynthesis
27ConsumersConsumers are heterotrophs- get energy from other organisms
28Types of Consumers Herbivores- eat only plants Carnivores- eat animals Omnivores- eat both plants and animalsDetritivores- eat dead matter (plants and animals)
29Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from:1. the sun or inorganic compounds2. To autotrophs (producers)3. To heterotrophs (consumers)Decomposers get energy from decomposing dead organisms
30Food Chain- a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten. Food Web- A network of feeding relationships.(More realistic that a food chain)
34Trophic levelsEach step in a food chain or a food web is called a trophic level.Producers are the first trophic levelConsumers are the second, third, or higher trophic levelEach trophic level depends on the one below for energy
35Energy PyramidOnly part of the energy stored in one level can be passed to the next- most energy is consumed for life processes (respiration, movement, etc., and heat is given off)Only 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms in the next trophic level
39Energy Losses Energy transfers are never 100 percent efficient Some energy is lost at each stepLimits the number of trophic levels in an ecosystemEnergy flow is a one way path! (not a cycle)
40All Heat in the EndAt each trophic level, the bulk of the energy received from the previous level is used in metabolismThis energy is released as heat energy and lost to the ecosystemEventually, all energy is released as heat