Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Interactions of Life Sections 1 & 3"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1: Interactions of Life Sections 1 & 3 Life Science
2 Ecology is the study of interactions among living things and their environments. Ecologists are scientists who study those interactions.
3 What is a Biosphere? Biosphere- part of the Earth that supports life. Biosphere is made up of different Environments that are home to many different kinds of organisms.
4 What is an Ecosystem???Ecosystems- consist of all the living organisms and the non-living things in their environment.
5 Living ThingsBiotic Factors – a living thingin an ecosystem
6 Abiotic FactorAbiotic Factors – any physical or chemical part of an ecosystem that living things NEED to survive.SunlightWaterAirSoil, Sand, Rocks, etc.Proper Temperature
7 iPads!!!Create your own Ecosystem using the LINO APP!
8 PopulationsPopulations- made up of all the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species.Example- Human Population!
9 Community Community- all the populations in an ecosystem. Example- Arctic Community: fish, seals, polar bears.
10 Habitat- the place in which organisms live Provides: food & shelter, proper temperature, and Living space theorganism NEEDS to survive.- Example – PondNiche – an organism’s role or jobin the habitat.
11 Section 3: Interactions with Communities What is a Community?
12 Where does all the Energy come from? SUN!What is affected? How?
13 Energy from the sun is stored in chemical bonds that holds together Atoms. When these chemical bonds are broken, what must be released?
14 All organisms need energy in one way or another….
15 PRODUCERSProducers: organisms that use a source of energy to make foodExample: Plants use sun for Photosynthesis
16 What if organisms can’t receive sunlight? Chemosynthesis – is when bacteria produces food using heated chemicals released from underwater vents.
17 CONSUMERS Consumers: Organisms that cannot make their own food AKA - Heterotrophs
31 Habitat- the place in which organisms live Provides: food & water, shelter, proper temperature, and Living space theorganism NEEDS to survive.- Example – PondNiche – an organism’s role or jobin the habitat.
32 NichesWhat is a Niche?Niches- how an organism survives, how it obtains food and shelter, how it finds a mate and cares for its young, how it avoids danger.Special adaptations that improve survival are often part of an organism’s niche.
33 Patterns Exist in Populations Patterns in SPACE - how animals or plants place themselves, depends on how they meet their needs to survive.Space is needed for food or water.Examples – School of fish, herd of elephants
34 Patterns in Populations Patterns in TIMEPopulation sizes change depending on climate.Examples – Cicadas emerge every 17 years, bears hibernate, birds migrate, jelly fish in August!Population sizes can alsodepend on predators.
36 Symbiotic Relationships Symbiotic Relationship – means a close relationship between two species
37 MUTUALISM Mutualism- where both species benefit Example: Bee and FlowerExplain…
38 COMMENSALISMCommensalism- where one organism benefits and the other is not affectedExample: Clown Fish and AnemonesExplain…
39 PARASITISMParasitism- where one organism benefits, and the other is harmedExample- Dogs and Ticks
40 PREDATOR/PREY Predator- consumers that capture and eat other consumers Predators can limit the size of populationsPredators can also increase & decrease the number of different organisms in an ecosystem.
41 PREDATOR/PREYPrey- organism that is captured by a consumer (or predator)
43 CompetitionCompetition- two or more organisms that seek the same resource at the same time.
44 Effects of Competition Competition for food, living space, or other resources can LIMIT the population.Prevents Pop. GrowthCompetition is most intense among individuals of the same species.
45 Measuring Pop. Methods Count the # of species Trap-Mark-Release Sample Count (used to estimate the sizes of larger populations)
46 Population SizePop. Size- indicates whether population is healthy and growing.Population Density- the size of a population that occupies a specific area
47 Limiting Factor- anything that restricts the # of individuals in a population. Can be living or nonlivingCan affect other populationsCarrying Capacity- the largest # of individuals of one species that an ecosystem can support.
48 What if the Carrying Capacity exceeds? Not enough resources, death occurs, species are forced to move.
49 What Affects Pop. Size?List some things that can affect Population Sizes…
50 Exponential GrowthExponential Growth- the LARGER a population becomes, the FASTER it grows.
51 Changing in Pop.Populations can change in size when new members enter or exit the pop.BIRTH RATE- # of births in a given timeDEATH RATE- # of deaths in a given time