2 Levels Within LevelsAn ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. Within an ecosystem, there are several levels of organization. Your school and its grounds are similar to an ecosystem.1. What living things are found in and around your school?2. What nonliving things are found in your school?3. Into what large groups are the students in your school divided?4. Into what smaller groups are these large groups divided?5. Are these groups ever divided into even smaller groups? If so, what are these groups?
3 What is Ecology? Study of interactions among 1. Organisms (Living-Living)2. Organisms and their environment (Living-Nonliving)
4 Species- a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
5 3-2 Ecological Levels of Organization Section 3-1Go to Section:
6 Levels of Organization Individual- one organism (living)Ex a moose
7 Levels of Organization Population- groups of individuals that belong to the species and live in the same area. (living-living same species)Ex many moose
8 Levels of Organization Community- groups of different populations (more than one population or different groups of species)Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass (all living)
9 Levels of Organization Ecosystem- all organisms in a particular area along with the nonliving. (living and nonliving)Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass, rocks, water, mountains
10 Levels of Organization Biome- group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communitiesBiomes: tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannah, temperate grassland, desert, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest (taiga), tundra, mountains and ice caps
11 Levels of Organization Biosphere- all of the planet where life exhists, includes land, water, and, airLife extends 8 km up and 11 km below the surface
12 What shapes an ecosystem? Biotic factors- biological (living) influences on ecosystemEx. Interactions between organisms, predation, symbiosis, etc.Abiotic factors- nonliving influences on ecosystemsEx. Temperature, precipitation, nutrient availability, sol type, sunlight.
15 Habitat vs. Niche Habitat- an area where an organism lives Niche- full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. Includes where in the food chain it is, where an organism feedsHabitat is like an address in an ecosystem and a niche is like an occupation in an ecosystem.
16 Community Interactions when organisms live together in an ecological community they interact constantly.Three types of interactionsCompetitionPredationSymbiosis
17 Competition- competing for resources occurs due to a limited number of resourcesResource- any necessity of life. water, nutrients, light, food.Competitive exclusion principle- no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
18 PredationPredation- when an organism captures and feeds on another organism.Predator- hunterPrey- hunted
19 SymbiosisSymbiosis- any relationship where two species live closely together. (3 types)MutualismCommensalismParasitism
20 Symbiosis Mutualism- both species benefit from a relationship. Lichens (fungus and Algae)One example is the lichens, little non-descript patches of stuff you see growing on rocks and tree bark. This is a symbiosis, consisting of a fungus and an alga. The fungus provides a protective home for the algae, and gathers mineral nutrients from rainwater and from dissolving the rock underneath. The alga gathers energy from the sun. There are thousands of species of lichen in the world; actually thousands of species of fungi with just a few species of algae which can form a partnership with almost any of them.
21 SymbiosisCommensalism – One member of a symbiotic relationship benefits and the other is neither helped or harmedEx. Holes used by bluebirds in a tree were chiseled out by woodpeckers after it has been abandoned .
22 Symbiosis Parasitism- One creature benefits and one creature is harmed Ex tapeworm. Feeds in a humans intestines absorbing his/her nutrients.
23 Energy Flow (Trophic Levels) Producers- make their own foodConsumers- get energy from consuming producers or other consumers
24 ProducersProducers- capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use the energy to produce food.Producers are autotrophs- they make food from their environment
25 Autotrophs Get energy from the sun-by photosynthesis Get energy without light- by chemosynthesis
26 ConsumersConsumers are heterotrophs- get energy from other organisms
27 Types of Consumers Herbivores- eat only plants Carnivores- eat animals Omnivores- eat both plants and animalsDetritivores- eat dead matter (plants and animals)
28 Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from:1. the sun or inorganic compounds2. To autotrophs (producers)3. To heterotrophs (consumers)Decomposers get energy from decomposing dead organisms
29 Food Web- A network of feeding relationships. Food Chain- a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten.Third LevelConsumersSecond LevelFirst Level (Primary)Food Web- A network of feeding relationships.(More realistic than a food chain)
30 Trophic levelsEach step in a food chain or a food web is called a trophic level.Producers are the first trophic levelConsumers are the second, third, or higher trophic levelEach trophic level depends on the one below for energyThird LevelConsumersSecond LevelFirst Level (Primary)
31 Energy PyramidOnly part of the energy stored in one level can be passed to the next- most energy is consumed for life processes (respiration, movement, etc., and heat is given off)Only 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms in the next trophic level
32 Biomass PyramidBiomass- the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.A biomass pyramid represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.