Presentation on theme: "ECOLOGY CHAPTERS 18-23 Study of the interactions between organisms & the living & non-living components of their environment."— Presentation transcript:
1 ECOLOGY CHAPTERS 18-23Study of the interactions between organisms & the living & non-living components of their environment.
2 Today’s Environment Ecological problems Exploding human population Mass ExtinctionThinning ozone layerClimatic changes
3 Ecological Research Conducted using three basic principles: Observing ExperimentingModeling
4 Energy Flow Main energy source for life on earth Autotrophs SUNAutotrophsMake food by means of photosynthesis or chemosynthesisPRODUCERSHeterotrophsRely on other organisms for foodCONSUMERS
5 Types of Heterotrophs Herbivores: eat plants Carnivores: eat animals Omnivores: eat both (plants/animals)Detritovores: eat dead matterEx. EarthwormsDecomposers: break down organic matterEx. Fungi
6 Food Chains & Food Webs Food Chain Food Web Shows how living things transfer energy by eating & being eatenFood WebLinks all food chains in an ecosystem togetherShows a network of complex interactions
8 Levels of Organization DescriptionBiosphereBroadest, most inclusive levelThin volume of earth & its atmosphere that supports lifeEcosystemIncludes all living & non-living components found in a particular placePond: fish, turtle, water, etc.CommunityAll interacting organisms living in an areaMay contain thousands of speciesPopulationAll members of a species that live in one place at one timeOrganismSimplest level of organization
12 Biosphere CyclesClick on diagram to play a video on Biosphere Cycles…
13 Ecology of Organisms Habitat Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors Where an organism livesBiotic FactorsLiving components of an environmentAbiotic FactorsPhysical & chemical (non-living) characteristics of an environmentTemperature, light, humidity, pH, salinity, O2 concentration, precipitation, etcAbiotic factors are not constant
16 Tolerance CurveGraph of performance vs. values of an environmental variable, such as temp.
17 Terms Acclimation Conformers Regulators Dormancy Migration An organism’s ability to adjust their tolerance to abiotic factors, such as high elevationConformersDo no regulate internal conditionsRegulatorsUse energy to control some internal conditionsDormancyState of reduced activityMigrationMovement to a more favorable environment
18 Niche A species’ way of life; the role it plays in its environment Fundamental NicheRange of conditions a species can potentially tolerate & range of resources it can potentially useRealized NicheRange of resources a species actually uses
19 Generalists vs. Specialists Species with a broad nicheVirginia opossum (feeds on anything)SpecialistSpecies with narrow nichesKoala bear (eats only leaves of eucalyptus tree)
20 Community Ecology Symbiosis: Relationships among species Predation Predator kills & consumes preyParasitismOne organism benefits & other is harmedCompetitionSpecies compete for same resourcesMutualismCooperative relationship in which both species benefitCommensalismOne organism benefits & the other is not affected
21 Succession The gradual, sequential regrowth of a species in an area. Primary successionDevelopment of a community in an area that has not supported life previously, such as bare rock, sand dunes, or an island formed from volcanic eruption.Secondary successionSequential replacement of species that follows disruption of an existing community.Pioneer species: species that predominate early in successionClimax community: Stable end point following succession
22 Environmental Science A field of science that uses biological principles to look at the relationships between humans & the earth.
23 Human Effects on Environment Declining ozoneGreenhouse EffectCO2 Blanket; increase temperatureHuman Population Growth
24 Effect of Rising Population Burn more fossil fuelsLess fresh drinking waterDecrease in undeveloped landExtinction of many speciesIncrease in human wasteLess foodMore disease & deathPotentially more natural disasters
25 Taking Action!! Conservation Biology An area of science which tries to identify & maintain natural areasRestoration BiologyAn attempt at saving a devastated area