2 ObjectivesExplain the ecological levels of organization in the biosphere;Describe the parts and players in an ecosystem;Arrange components of a food chain according to energy flow;Create a food web;Compare the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid;Use diagrams to trace and explain the movement of matter through cycles in an ecosystem; andExplain the concept of a limiting factor as it relates to water and nutrients.
3 A. Explain the ecological levels of organization in the biosphere; An ecosystem refers to all the animals and plants found in one place, and the way they all live together.Different plants and animals live in different ecosystems.Different ecosystems can be close together.Some animals belong to several ecosystems.
4 Levels of Organization The biosphere contains a complex set of interaction between organismsSpecies/Individual: a group of organisms so similar they can reproducePopulations: a group of the same species that live in the same area
5 Levels of Organization Communities: groups of different populations that live in the same areaEcosystem: organisms and the non living environment in a particular placeBiome: a group of ecosystems that share the same climate, and dominant communities (desert)
6 B. Arrange components of a food chain according to energy flow; All living things (organisms) need food (nourishment) to live.Living things in an ecosystem depend on each other for food.
7 CarnivoresSome animals, like the kingfisher, eat only other animals. These animals are called “carnivores”.
8 HerbivoresSome animals do not eat other animals. They survive on plants and are known as “herbivores”.
9 Omnivores Some animals, like us, eat both plants and animals. These animals are called “omnivores”.
10 Consumers “Consume” means “eat”. Animals are consumers because they “eat” (consume) food provided by plants or other animals. (heterotrophs)
11 ProducersPlants are living organisms. They need nourishment to survive.But…Plants do not eat other plants or animals.Plants are called producers, because they make their own food inside themselves. (autotrophs)
12 A predator eats other animals. Cats eat fish.So do bears!
14 PreyAny animal which is hunted and killed by another animal for food is prey.PredatorPrey
15 Predators and PreySome animals are predators, some are prey - some are both.The predator eats the prey, and the prey gets eaten by the predator.
16 Food Chains A food chain shows what is eaten. The lettuce is eaten by the rabbit.
17 Food chains always start with a plant. The lettuce is eaten by the slug, the slug is eaten by the bird.
18 Food Chains - a Reminder A food chain shows which animals eat other animals or plants.Plants don’t eat things.A food chain starts with what gets eaten and the arrows point towards what does the eating.Food chains only go in one direction.
20 Food WebsIn the wild, animals may eat more than one thing, so they belong to more than one food chain.To get the food they need, small herbivores may eat lots of different plants, and carnivores may eat many different animals.
21 Food Webs fox owl rabbits mice grass seeds berries We can show this by using a food web, which is just a more complicated version of a food chain.foxowlrabbitsmicegrassseedsberries
22 Breaking the Chain Organisms living in a habitat depend on each other. If one part of a food chain dies out or is greatly reduced, the consumers have to find alternative food, move away, or starve.This then affects more consumers in the same way.
23 C. Create a food web; Chose an ecosystem to work from Include at least 12 organisms, 4 autotrophs, 1 decomposerOrganize your drawing into trophic levelsBe sure to draw all interactions that are happening between organismsIdeas: Forest, desert, Utah Mountains, Ocean, Jungle, Savanna
24 E. Compare the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid; Ecological pyramid: a diagram that shows the amounts of energy or matter in each trophic level of a food chain or food webTop level consumers 1% of energyFirst level consumers 10% of energyProducers produce 100% ofavailable energy
25 F. Use diagrams to trace and explain the movement of matter through cycles in an ecosystem; and Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystemsBiogeochemical cycles: elements, chemicals, and other matter is passed through the biosphere
26 The Water Cycle All living things require water New water is not created, it moves between the oceans, atmosphere and landEvaporation: process by which water changes from liquid to gasTranspiration: when water evaporates from the leaves of plants
28 The Carbon Cycle Carbon is the key ingredient in living tissue CO2 is important part of the atmosphereCO2 is taken in and used by plants, and release by animals and plants
29 The Carbon Cycle Has four main types of processes: Biological: photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and relase CO2 and oxygenGeochemical: such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and oceans
30 The Carbon CycleMixed Biochemical processes, such as burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum, store carbon undergroundHuman activities such as mining, cutting and burning forests, releases CO2 into the atmosphere
32 The Nitrogen CycleAll organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids, which form proteinsNitrogen makes up 78% of the earth’s atmosphereNitrogen fixation: process where a bacteria on the roots of legumes (peas, beans, alfalfa) converts nitrogen gas into usable ammoniaDenitrification: when soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas.
34 The Phosphorus CyclePhosphorus is essential for living organisms because it is part of DNA and RNAPhosphorus does not become part of the atmosphereReleased as rocks and sediments wear downAs it dissolves, it is used by organisms
36 G. Explain the concept of a limiting factor as it relates to water and nutrients. Primary Productivity: the rate at which organic matter is created by producersLimiting nutrient: when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles slowlyEx. Algal bloom: when a limited nutrient becomes abundant, not enough consumers to eat it.