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Principles of Ecology Chapter 13. Ecologists Study Relationships Interactions and Interdependence Interactions and Interdependence  Ecology – the scientific.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Ecology Chapter 13. Ecologists Study Relationships Interactions and Interdependence Interactions and Interdependence  Ecology – the scientific."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Ecology Chapter 13

2 Ecologists Study Relationships Interactions and Interdependence Interactions and Interdependence  Ecology – the scientific study of interactions among living things and their surroundings

3 Ecologists Study Relationships Biosphere - part of a planet (the earth) in which life exists including land, water, and air Biosphere - part of a planet (the earth) in which life exists including land, water, and air

4 Ecologists Study Relationships  Populations – individuals that live in the same area  Species – a group of individuals that can interbreed

5 Ecologists Study Relationships  Communities – assemblages of different populations that live together  Communities are within the ecosystem (Ex. A reef in the ocean)

6 Ecologists Study Relationships  Ecosystem – a collection of all organisms that live in a particular place with their nonliving, or physical environment  Scientists often study species, populations, or communities in an ecosystem.

7 Ecologists Study Relationships Levels of Organization Levels of Organization  Biome – a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities

8 Ecologists Study Relationships Ecological Methods Ecological Methods  Observing – first step  Long term studies more beneficial-ecological change takes time  Surveys  Direct  Indirect  Determining Population Size  Catch and release  Quadrat Sampling

9 Ecologists Study Relationships  Experimenting – used to test hypotheses  Can do in the field or lab  Lab-more control, not a true reflection  Field-More accurate, difficult to determine cause and effect relationships

10 Ecologists Study Relationships  Modeling – gain insight  Computers  Mathematical models  Use actual data to simulate  Data collected using satellite technology

11 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Living and Non- living components Living and Non- living components –Biotic - living factors –Abiotic - nonliving things

12 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biodiversity Biodiversity –The assortment, or variety of living things –Dependent on temperature, moisture –Keystone Species – species that have a large impact on ecosystems

13 Energy in Ecosystems Producers – organisms that make their own food Producers – organisms that make their own food  Autotrophs – organisms that use energy from the sun or chemicals to make food

14 Energy in Ecosystems  Energy from the sun Photosynthesis – Autotrophs use light energy to power chemical reactions that make energy – Uses CO 2 – Makes O 2 and Carbs

15 Energy in Ecosystems  Life without light Chemosynthesis – Use chemical energy to make carbohydrates –Bacteria deep in the ocean

16 Energy in Ecosystems Consumers – Organisms that need other organisms for their energy and food supply Consumers – Organisms that need other organisms for their energy and food supply  These are also referred to as heterotrophs

17 Food Chains and Food Webs Feeding Relationships Feeding Relationships Food Chains – A series of energy transferring steps

18 Food Chains and Food Webs  Types of heterotrophs Herbivores –Energy from eating plants Carnivores –Energy from eating animals Omnivores –Both plants and animals Detritivores –Feed on the remains of dead matter Decomposers –Break down organic matter for energy

19 Food Chains and Food Webs Specialist Specialist –Consumer that primarily eats one specific organism Generalist Generalist –Have a varying diet

20 Food Chains and Food Webs  Trophic Levels – Each step in a food chain or web First level is producers Second level on is consumers- usually herbivores Tertiary consumers are usually carnivores Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it

21 Food Chains and Food Webs  Food Webs – Feeding relationships among many organisms in an ecosystem form a network of interactions

22 Cycling of Matter The Hydrological Cycle (Water Cycle) The Hydrological Cycle (Water Cycle) –Evaporation – Water changes from a liquid to a gas –Transpiration – Evaporation from the leaves of a plant

23 Cycling of Matter  Clouds form from tiny drops of water collecting called condensation

24 Cycling of Matter Recycling in the Biosphere Recycling in the Biosphere  Biogeochemical cycles The transforming of matter by biological systems –Energy moves in a one way fashion – Nutrients recycle

25 Cycling of Matter Nutrient Cycles Nutrient Cycles  Nutrient – All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life

26 Cycling of Matter Oxygen Cycle Oxygen Cycle –Most organisms use oxygen need oxygen –Plants release oxygen –Living organisms release carbon dioxide as a waste product

27 Cycling of Matter  The Carbon Cycle Carbon is passed on from one situation to another throughout the biosphere –Photosynthesis uses CO 2 to make carbs –Carbs are eaten by other organisms –Organisms exhale CO 2 during cellular respiration – All organisms eventually decay and the carbon is converted to coal or petroleum –Burning things releases stored CO 2 into the atmosphere

28 Cycling of Matter  The Nitrogen Cycle All organisms need nitrogen to make amino acids –What do amino acids make? –Proteins –78% of Earth’s atmosphere  Nitrogen gas (N 2 ) –Other types: –Ammonia (NH 3 )  Nitrate (NO 3 )  Nitrite (NO 2 ) –Nitrogen fixation – N 2 to NH 3 –Denitrification - NO 3 to N 2

29 Cycling of Matter –The Phosphorus Cycle DNA and RNA need phosphorus This element does not go into the atmosphere Phosphorus works its way through the food web

30 Cycling of Matter Nutrient Limitation Nutrient Limitation –Ecologists look at the rate of production of producers – Primary Producivity –Availability of nutrients can limit an ecosystem –Limiting nutrient Ecosystem limited by one nutrient –Nitrogen in the ocean is the limiting nutrient 0.00005% nitrogen If runoff causes a drastic increase in nitrogen, then an algae bloom occurs

31 Pyramid Models Ecological Pyramids – diagram that shows how much energy is transferred at each trophic level Ecological Pyramids – diagram that shows how much energy is transferred at each trophic level

32 Pyramid Models  Biomass Pyramid Biomass – Total amount of living tissue in a level –Represents the amount of potential food available at each trophic level

33 Pyramid Models  Energy Pyramid Only about 10 % of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level –More levels means less energy at the last level

34 Pyramid Models  Pyramid Numbers  Shows how many individuals there are in each level


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