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Chapter 3 – The Biosphere

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1 Chapter 3 – The Biosphere
Section 3-1: What is Ecology?

2 All organisms __________with the environment  to understand these_______________, we study ecology
_________= the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment (surroundings) interact interactions Ecology

3 Ecology is all about ________________ this leads to a better understanding of the interactions that take place organization Biosphere _____________ = the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists, including land, water, air, or atmosphere

4 There are 5 levels of organization within the biosphere; a species, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes

5 1. Species Species = a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce offspring This levels of organization looks at just _________________ most of the time an individual

6 2. Population Population = a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area at the same time

7 3. Communities Communities = assemblages of different populations that live together in the same area at the same time

8 4. Ecosystem Ecosystem = collection of all the organisms that live in a certain area, together with the nonliving (physical) environment

9 5. Biome Biome = a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities

10 Ecologists use a wide range of tools and techniques to study the living world
The 3 basic approaches ecologist use are _____________, __________________, and ____________ observing experimenting modeling

11 Section 3-2: Energy Flow

12 In order for organisms to interact, they need energy!
____________ is the main source of energy for life on Earth Some types of organisms rely on energy stored in ___________ __________________________ Sunlight inorganic chemical compounds

13 ________________ = organisms that can capture energy from the sun or chemicals to produce food
Autotrophs They are also called ______________ since they make their own food Producers help _______the flow of energy through the biosphere producers Includes plants, some algae, and certain bacteria start

14 Most autotrophs we think of use ___________________ to use light energy to power chemical reactions that produce carbs photosynthesis Photosynthesis adds ___________ to the atmosphere and removes _____ oxygen CO2 Land plants, as well as algae that remain in the sunlit portion of aquatic environments use photosynthesis

15 Some autotrophs use ____________________ (chemical reactions) to produce carbs
chemosynthesis Many ___________ use chemosynthesis bacteria

16 _________________ = organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and food supply
They are also called Heterotrophs consumers

17 There are several different types of heterotrophs
______________ – only eat plants (cows, caterpillars, deer) Herbivores 2. _____________ – only eat animals (lions, snakes, owls) Carnivores 3. ______________ – eat both plants and animals (humans, bears, crows) Omnivores

18 4. ________________(scavengers) – feed on animal and plant remains and other dead matter (vultures)
Detritivores 5. _________________– break down organic matter (bacteria and fungi) Decomposers

19 Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction; sun/inorganic compounds  autotrophs  heterotrophs

20 Food chain _____________ = a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten In a food chain, the arrows point in _______________ in which energy is transferred Ex. Grass  antelope  coyote the direction The amount of energy remaining is _______________ of what was available at the first transfer only a portion

21 ____________ = shows the complex network of interactions within an ecosystem
Food web Food webs link the food chains in an ecosystem together Food webs can be ________________ because 1 producer can be food for several consumers and 1 consumer can feed on several types of producers as well as other consumers very complex

22 ________________ = each step in a food chain or food web
Trophic level _____________ are the 1st trophic level ______________ make up the 2nd, 3rd, or higher trophic levels Producers Consumers Each consumer depends on the trophic level below for energy

23 Ecologist have come up with ______________________ to model energy or matter in an ecosystem
_______________________ = a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or web ecological pyramids Ecological pyramids There are 3 types of pyramids; energy, biomass, numbers

24 1. Energy pyramid – shows the amount of energy available at each trophic level
Only about _______ of the energy gets passed from one trophic level to the next The transfer amount is small because organisms use much of the energy they obtain for basic processes like ______________, _____________, and ________________ The more trophic levels, the ______ energy reaches the top 10% respiration movement reproduction less

25 2. Biomass pyramid – shows the total amount of living mass (biomass) in a given trophic level
Biomass is usually expressed in It represents the amount of potential ______ available for each trophic level grams per unit area food

26 3. Pyramid of numbers – shows the number of individuals at each trophic level
Sometimes the shape of the numbers and biomass pyramid are the same because ______________________ produce food for a _________________ of consumers Sometimes a numbers pyramid can be upside down when ____ _____________ can be food for ____________________ (Ex. one trees feeds many insects) lots of individuals lesser number one producer many consumers

27 Section 3-3: Cycles of Matter

28 Organisms need more than just energy to survive  they need nutrients too!
Energy only flows one way, but matter is _________________________ ___________ ecosystems __________________________ = connect biological geological, and chemical aspects of the biosphere to help recycle matter recycled within and between Biogeochemical cycles Matter is never used up, it is transformed  that is why it can be recycled

29 The water cycle is very important because all living things require water to live!
Water _______________ (liquid to gas) from lakes and oceans and becomes ________________ Plants release water vapor through Animals release water vapor when they __________ (also when they perspire/urinate) evaporates water vapor transpiration breathe

30 As water cools high in the atmosphere, it condenses on dust in the air to form clouds
Eventually the water vapor _____________ enough to fall as _________________ condenses precipitation

31 ______________ = all chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life
Nutrients Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions The_________, ____________, and _______________ cycles are important nutrient cycles (oxygen is involved in each) carbon nitrogen phosphorus

32 The carbon cycle! – we have already learned that carbon is a very important element
Carbon takes many forms and is a key ingredient of _______________ living tissue

33 4 main processes move carbon through its cycle
1. _____________ processes like photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition Biological 2. _________________ processes like erosion and volcanic activity Geochemical 3. ____________________________ processes like burial and decomposition of dead organisms Mixed biogeochemical 4. _____________________ like mining, cutting/burning forests, and burning fuels Human activities

34 The nitrogen cycle! – nitrogen is essential for amino acids and protein building
There are many different naturally occurring forms of nitrogen – even though the air is _____ nitrogen, most plants can’t use it Certain _________ on plant roots can help convert the nitrogen in the air to usable nitrogen in ammonia (_____________________) 78% bacteria nitrogen fixation

35 Animals eat plants and use the nitrogen proteins for various uses (__________________)
When animals _________, nitrogen is released back into the soil for plant use (the same thing happens when an animal ______) Some soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas through form muscles urinate dies denitrification

36 The phosphorus cycle! – phosphorus is important in the formation of DNA and RNA
Phosphorus cycles in 2 ways ______________ – when animals die, phosphorus is returned to the soil to be used again ______________ – phosphates get incorporated into rock and other insoluble compounds – millions of years later that rock becomes exposed and erodes, releasing the phosphorus back into the local system Short-term Long-term

37 Since nutrients are so important to ecosystems, they can sometimes be limiting
_________________________ of an ecosystem = the rate at which organic matter is created by producers Primary productivity is limited by Primary productivity Sometimes an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient (_____________________) limiting nutrient available nutrients

38 Oceans are considered __________________ compared to land
nutrient-poor An _______________ can occur when a large amount of the limiting nutrient is introduced to an aquatic ecosystem These blooms can disrupt the ________________ of a system algal bloom equilibrium

39 Grand Lake on July 1st, 2011

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