2EcologyEcology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment/surroundings
3Interactions and Interdependence The living world is a householdBiosphere is the part of the earth in which all life existsInteractions produce interdependenceInterdependence contributes to change
4Levels of Organization Species/Individual – can breed and produce fertile offspring (already have)Population – groups of same species in same areaCommunity – different populations that live in an areaEcosystem – collection of organisms and their environmentBiome – group of ecosystems with same climateBiosphere – earth
5Look at Figure 3-2Can a group of rabbits and a group of field mice make up the same population in an ecosystem? Why/Why not?No, because individuals that make up a __________ must be of the same ________.
6BiomesCould a biome in Brazil near the equator be the same as a biome in northern Canada? Explain.No, because those two biomes would have different climates and different dominant communities
7Ecological Methods Observing Experimenting Modeling Since ecological phenomena occur over long periods of time or on large spatial scale, need modeling because difficult to study
8Big Idea Essential Question Matter and energy flow through living and nonliving systemsEssential QuestionHow do organisms at each trophic level get the nutrients and energy they need to function?
9Energy FlowOne of the most important factors that determines the system’s capacity to sustain life
10Producers (already have) Sunlight is the main energy source for life on earthSome organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compoundsMineral water
11Consumers (already have) Cannot harness energy directly from the physical environmentNeed to eat other organisms for energy
12Feeding Relationships (already have) Energy flows from sun to heterotrophs through autotrophsFood chains show one way flow of energyHow energy stored by producers can be passed through an ecosystemFood webs show all feeding relationships in an ecosystemProducers make up the first trophic levelEach consumer relies on the trophic level below it.
13Look at Figure 3-8 How is a food web different from a food chain? A food web contains many overlapping food chains, so it is much more complex than a single food chain
14Ecological PyramidsIn energy pyramids, only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic levelThe other 90% is lost as heat
15Symbiosis Scenarios At the lab tables you have scenarios. It is your group’s job to sort these scenarios according to their appropriate symbiotic relationship.When you think you have it, call me over to check you.GOOD LUCK!
16Cycles of Matter Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems Matter is not used up, but transformed
17Recycling in the Biosphere Matter is recycled within and between ecosystemsEnergy flows one wayBiological systems transform matterBiogeochemical cycles connect biological, geological, and chemical aspects of the biosphere
18Biogeochemical Cycles Pass the same molecules around again and again within the biosphereHow elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed
19Pg. 74How can a molecule that’s swallowed by a dung beetle “combine into” – or become part of – the body tissue of a tree shrew and then an owl?
20The tree shrew takes in the molecule when it eats the dung beetle, then an owl takes in the molecule when it eats the tree shrew.
21Review: Water CycleWater moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land through transpiration, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, seepage, and root uptakeFigure 3-11
22Fig pg. 75What are two ways that water can enter the atmosphere?Evaporation and transpiration
23What process moves water from the air to the ground? Precipitation
24What are two routes by which water might make its way to the ocean? Runoff and Seepage
25Nutrient CyclesEvery living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functionsLike water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment
26Carbon Cycle Carbon is key ingredient of living tissue Carbon can take on many forms in many compounds; ex. Calcium carbonateAlso a component of carbon dioxide
27Four Processes that Move Carbon Through its Cycle Biological processes, ex. Photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygenGeochemical processes, ex. Erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and oceans
28Mixed biogeochemical processes, ex Mixed biogeochemical processes, ex. Burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum, store carbon undergroundHuman activities, ex. Mining, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
29Figure 3-13Be able to “translate” diagrams pictures, labels, and arrows into complete sentences
30Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is required to make amino acids Used to build proteinsNitrogen in many forms occurs naturally in the biosphereNitrogen gas – 78% of earth’s atmosphereAmmonia – nitrogen containing substanceNitrate and nitrite ions – in wastes produced by many organisms and in dead and decaying organic matter
31Nitrogen Fixation Bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia Live in soil and on the roots of plants called legumes
32Other Bacteria Bacteria in general Convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites used by plants to make proteinsThen eaten by consumers and so onBacteria in generalSome cause diseaseSome live inside and help with digestionSome decomposeSome are producers
33Denitrification Decomposers return nitrogen to soil as ammonia Some bacteria take ammonia and use it to convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
34Figure 3-14Be able to “translate” diagrams pictures, labels, and arrows into complete sentences
35Nutrition Label FYIWhat types of information are given on the nutrition label?Serving size, total number of servings in container, specific nutrients, amount of the nutrient in one serving, percentage of daily value each amount representsWhat do you think a “daily value” is?How much of a nutrient a person should take in each dayWhat does percentage of daily value mean?How much daily value is in one serving of the vitamin