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Principles of Ecology Biology. What is Ecology? –What is the lowest level of organization that most ecologists study? –What name is given to several organisms.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Ecology Biology. What is Ecology? –What is the lowest level of organization that most ecologists study? –What name is given to several organisms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Ecology Biology

2 What is Ecology? –What is the lowest level of organization that most ecologists study? –What name is given to several organisms in the same species interacting together? –What factors are included in an ecosystem that are not included in a community? –Describe how ecosystems and biomes differ? –Which level of biological organization is the most complex?

3 What is Ecology? –What is the lowest level of organization that most ecologists study? organism –What name is given to several organisms in the same species interacting together? population –What factors are included in an ecosystem that are not included in a community? Abiotic factors –Describe how ecosystems and biomes differ? Biomes include several ecosystems over a large area. –Which level of biological organization is the most complex? Biosphere

4 Levels of Organization Ecologist study organisms ranging from the various levels of organization: –Species –Population –Community –Ecosystem –Biome –Biosphere

5 Interrelationships Define the 3 categories of symbiosis and give an example of each – and record in your journal/notebook What is competition? Give an example. What is predation? Give an example

6 Population – group of individuals of the same species living in the same area, potentially interacting Community – group of populations of different species living in the same area, potentially interacting What are some ecological interactions?

7 Why are ecological interactions important? Interactions can affect distribution and abundance. Interactions can influence evolution. Think about how the following interactions can affect distribution, abundance, and evolution.

8 Types of ecological interactions competition predation parasitism mutualism commensalism symbiosis

9

10 Competition – two species share a requirement for a limited resource  reduces fitness of one or both species

11 Predation – one species feeds on another  enhances fitness of predator but reduces fitness of prey herbivory is a form of predation

12 Parasitism – one species feeds on another  enhances fitness of parasite but reduces fitness of host

13 Mutualism – two species provide resources or services to each other  enhances fitness of both species

14 Commensalism – one species receives a benefit from another species  enhances fitness of one species; no effect on fitness of the other species

15 Symbiosis – two species live together  can include parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism

16 Organizing ecological interactions effect on species 1 effect on species mutualism predation herbivory parasitism predation herbivory parasitism commensalism competition

17 Ecosystem Interactions What is a habitat? What is a niche?

18 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem What are: autotrophs, heterotrophs, herbivore, carnivore, omnivores, detritivores What is the main energy source for life? What is a trophic level? How do you draw a food chain, food web? What is the difference? What group is at the top of the pyramid of energy, biomass, numbers?

19 How does Energy flow through an Ecosystem? Energy flows through an ecosystem in ONE direction, –sun or chemicals –Autotrophs – heterotrophs

20 Energy Flow in Ecosystems:

21 Feeding Relationships Food Chain – steps of organisms transferring energy by eating & being eaten Food Web – network of all the food chains in an ecosystem

22 Food Web

23 Ecological Pyramids Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers Trophic Level – each step in a food chain or food web

24 How does Matter move through an ecosystem? Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within & between ecosystems Nutrients are passed between organisms & the environment through biogeochemical cycles Biogeochemical Cycles: –Bio –life –Geo – Earth –Chemo – chemical 1.WATER CYCLE 2.NUTRIENT CYCLES: a)CARBON CYCLE b)NITROGEN CYCLE c)PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

25 Why are nutrients important ? 95% of your body is made of… 1)OXYGEN 2)CARBON 3)HYDROGEN 4)NITROGEN Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions.

26 THE WATER CYCLE

27 Water Cycle 1 Water –enters atmosphere by evaporation, transpiration –leaves atmosphere as precipitation Water on land –filters through ground –runs off to lakes, rivers, ocean

28 Water Cycle 2 Aquifers –underground caverns, porous layers of rock –store groundwater Runoff –movement of surface water from land to ocean

29 CARBON CYCLE (see fig.3-13) 4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON THROUGH ITS CYCLE: 1)Biological 2)Geochemical 3)Mixed biochemical 4)Human Activity CO 2

30 Carbon Cycle CO 2 gas enters plants, algae, cyanobacteria –photosynthesis turns CO 2 into organic molecules Cellular respiration, combustion, erosion of limestone return CO 2 to water, atmosphere –where it is again available to producers

31 NITROGEN CYCLE (see fig.3-14) Nitrogen-containing nutrients in the biosphere include: 1)Ammonia (NH 3 ) 2)Nitrate (NO 3 - ) 3)Nitrite (NO 2 - ) ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR BUILDING PROTEINS!!! N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 N0 3- & N0 2 -

32 Nitrogen Cycle 1 Nitrogen fixation –conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia Nitrification –conversion of ammonia or ammonium to nitrate

33 Nitrogen Cycle 2 Assimilation –conversion of nitrates, ammonia, or ammonium to proteins, chlorophyll, or nitrogen-containing compounds (by plants) –conversion of plant proteins into animal proteins

34 Nitrogen Fixation

35 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE (see fig.3-15) PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA)

36 Phosphorus Cycle 1 Phosphorus erodes from rock Plants absorb inorganic phosphate from soil (through roots) Animals obtain phosphorus from their diets

37 Phosphorus Cycle 2 Decomposers release inorganic phosphate into environment Phosphorus washes into ocean –is deposited in seabeds –lost from biological cycles for millions of years


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