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Cycles of Matter Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is ______________.

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Presentation on theme: "Cycles of Matter Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is ______________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cycles of Matter Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is ______________

2 Cycles of Matter Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.

3 Cycles of Matter Biogeochemical cycles –

4 Cycles of Matter Biogeochemical cycles – Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another

5 Cycles of Matter Biogeochemical cycles – Biological Geological Chemical Cycles are all connected

6 The Water Cycle Evaporation -

7 The Water Cycle Evaporation – process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas

8 The Water Cycle Evaporation – process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas Transpiration -

9 The Water Cycle Evaporation – process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas Transpiration – process of water evaporating from the leaves of plants

10 The Water Cycle Evaporation and transpiration occur

11 The Water Cycle Evaporation and transpiration occur Sun heats the atmosphere Warm air rises, and eventually cools

12 The Water Cycle Sun heats the atmosphere Warm air rises, and eventually cools Water vapor condenses and forms clouds

13 The Water Cycle When large enough, water droplets return to Earth’s surface in form of precipitation – rain, snow sleet or hail

14 The Water Cycle When large enough, water droplets return to Earth’s surface in form of precipitation – rain, snow sleet or hail On land, water runs along surface until it enters stream, river, lake or ocean

15 The Water Cycle On land, water runs along surface until it enters stream, river, lake or ocean Some water also seeps into soil and becomes ground water

16 The Water Cycle Some water also seeps into soil and becomes ground water Some water in soil enters plants through the roots

17 The Water Cycle Some water in soil enters plants through the roots and water cycle begins again

18 Nutrient Cycles

19 Benefits -

20 Nutrient Cycles Benefits – –Every organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions

21 Nutrient Cycles Benefits – –Every organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions Like water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical processes

22 Nutrient Cycles Benefits – –In many ecosystems, nutrients are in short supply

23 Nutrient Cycles Benefits – –In many ecosystems, nutrients are in short supply Thus recycling nutrients is essential for the ecosystem to keep functioning

24 Nutrient Cycles Benefits – –Nutrient cycling prevents many chemicals from reaching concentrations that would otherwise be toxic or harmful to organisms

25 Nutrient Cycles Three cycles play especially prominent roles in the biosphere

26 Nutrient Cycles Three cycles play especially prominent roles in the biosphere –The carbon cycle

27 Nutrient Cycles Three cycles play especially prominent roles in the biosphere –The carbon cycle –The nitrogen cycle

28 Nutrient Cycles Three cycles play especially prominent roles in the biosphere –The carbon cycle –The nitrogen cycle –The phosphorus cycle

29 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle

30 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Biological processes -

31 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Biological processes – photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition of plants and animals

32 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Geochemical processes -

33 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Geochemical processes – release of carbon dioxide to atmosphere by volcanoes

34 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Mixed biogeochemical processes -

35 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Mixed biogeochemical processes – burial of carbon-rich remains of organisms and their conversion into fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) by the pressure of overlying earth

36 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Human activity -

37 The Carbon Cycle There are four different kinds of processes involved in the carbon cycle –Human activity – including mining, the burning of fossil fuels, and the cutting and burning of forests

38 The Carbon Cycle In the atmosphere, carbon is present as carbon dioxide. CO 2

39 The Carbon Cycle In the atmosphere, carbon is present as carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide came from –Volcanic activity –Respiration –Burning of fossil fuels –Decomposition of organic matter CO 2

40 The Carbon Cycle Plants take in carbon dioxide CO 2

41 The Carbon Cycle Plants take in carbon dioxide –The carbon is used to build carbohydrates during photosynthesis CO 2

42 The Carbon Cycle The carbohydrates are passed along food webs to animals and other consumers CO 2

43 The Carbon Cycle In the ocean organisms use carbon to make calcium carbonate CO 2

44 The Carbon Cycle In the ocean organisms use carbon to make calcium carbonate –This calcium carbonate accumulates in marine sediments and in the bones and shells of organisms CO 2

45 The Carbon Cycle These calcium carbonate compounds eventually break down and the carbon returns to the atmosphere CO 2

46 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation -

47 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation – process where nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia by bacteria found in roots of plants called legumes

48 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen required to make amino acids, which are used to build proteins. N2N2 NH 3 NO 3 - NO 2 -

49 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen required to make amino acids, which are used to build proteins. When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia N2N2 NH 3 NO 3 - NO 2 -

50 The Nitrogen Cycle nitrogen gas (N 2 ) makes up 78% of atmosphere N2N2 NH 3 NO 3 - NO 2 -

51 The Nitrogen Cycle nitrogen gas (N 2 ) makes up 78% of atmosphere Through nitrogen fixation, nitrogen gas converted to ammonia N2N2 NH 3 NO 3 - NO 2 -

52 The Nitrogen Cycle Ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrate ions (NO 3 -), and nitrite ions(NO 2 -) are found in wastes produced by organisms N2N2 NH 3 NO 3 - NO 2 -

53 The Nitrogen Cycle Ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrate ions (NO 3 -), and nitrite ions(NO 2 -) are found in wastes produced by organisms These compounds taken up by producers to make proteins N2N2 NH 3 NO 3 - NO 2 -

54 The Nitrogen Cycle Soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in process called denitrification N2N2 NH 3 NO 3 - NO 2 -

55 The Phosphorous Cycle Important to living organisms because it forms part of DNA and RNA

56 The Phosphorous Cycle Important to living organisms because it forms part of DNA and RNA Not very common in biosphere

57 The Phosphorous Cycle Important to living organisms because it forms part of DNA and RNA Not very common in biosphere Does not enter atmosphere

58 The Phosphorous Cycle Important to living organisms because it forms part of DNA and RNA Not very common in biosphere Does not enter atmosphere –Instead it remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals, and in ocean sediments

59 The Phosphorous Cycle Does not enter atmosphere –Instead it remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals, and in ocean sediments –As rocks wear down, phosphate is released

60 The Phosphorous Cycle Does not enter atmosphere –Instead it remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals, and in ocean sediments –As rocks wear down, phosphate is released –It is released into streams and rivers and eventually makes its way to the ocean and is used by marine organisms –On land it is absorbed by plants and passes up through the food chain

61 Nutrient Limitation Primary productivity -

62 Nutrient Limitation Primary productivity – rate at which organic matter is created by producers.

63 Nutrient Limitation Limiting nutrient – single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem

64 Nutrient Limitation Limiting nutrient – single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem –Examples – farmers add fertilizers that contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to their crops

65 Nutrient Limitation Limiting nutrient – single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem –Examples – farmers add fertilizers that contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to their crops In freshwater aquatic environment, phosphorus is usually the limiting nutrient

66 Nutrient limitation Algal bloom -

67 Nutrient limitation Algal bloom – immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient

68 Nutrient limitation Algal bloom – immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient –Often results when runoff from heavily fertilized fields increases amount of limiting nutrient


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