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BIG IDEA: WHAT HAPPENS TO ENERGY STORED IN BODY TISSUES WHEN ONE ORGANISM EATS ANOTHER? Energy Flow In Ecosystems.

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Presentation on theme: "BIG IDEA: WHAT HAPPENS TO ENERGY STORED IN BODY TISSUES WHEN ONE ORGANISM EATS ANOTHER? Energy Flow In Ecosystems."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIG IDEA: WHAT HAPPENS TO ENERGY STORED IN BODY TISSUES WHEN ONE ORGANISM EATS ANOTHER? Energy Flow In Ecosystems

2 Food Chains & Food Webs How does energy flow through ecosystems?  A 1-way stream, from primary producers to consumers Food Chains  A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

3 Food Chains & Food Webs Food Webs  A network of feeding relationships; shows all the feeding relationships within an ecosystem

4 Food Chains & Food Webs Food Webs –  Very complicated  Notebook Time:  Describe the ecosystem that is your backyard  Draw a food web of that ecosystem Be as specific as possible  Draw a food chain from within your food web  What role do decomposers & detritivores play in food webs?

5 Food Chains & Food Webs Disturbances  In your groups, answer the following questions using the food web below:  What effect would an insecticide have on the food web?  Would this have an effect on the populations of non-insect eating animals?  What populations would increase?  What populations would decrease?  Would this change any animals eating habits? Which ones & how?

6 Trophic Levels & Ecological Pyramids Trophic Level  Each step in a food chain Ecological Pyramids  Show relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web  There are 3 different types of Ecological Pyramids  Pyramids of Energy  Pyramids of Biomass  Pyramids of numbers

7 Ecological Pyramids Pyramids of Energy  Show relative amounts of energy available at each trophic level  Typically  1/10 or 10% of available energy within one trophic level is passed on to the next level  In other words: 1/10 of the solar energy captured and stored in leaves of grasses ends up stored in the tissues of cows

8 Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Biomass & Numbers  Biomass –  Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level  Pyramid of Biomass  Illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level of an ecosystem

9 Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Biomass & Numbers  Pyramid of Numbers  Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem

10 Cycles of Matter How does matter move through the biosphere?  Biogeochemical cycles  Elements pass from one organism to another and among parts of the biosphere in closed loops  These loops are powered by the flow of energy.  4 Processes involved with biogeochemical cycles  Biological Processes Any and all activities performed by living organisms  Geological Processes Volcanic eruptions, erosion, plate tectonics  Chemical & Physical Processes Formation of clouds, flow of running water, lightning  Human Activity Deforestation, burning of fossil fuels, use of fertilizers

11 Water Cycle Water moves continuously between, oceans, the atmosphere, land and the organisms in them. Transpiration  Evaporation of water from leaves of the plants Evaporation  Loss of water from surface of bodies of water Condensation  When water vapor cools & becomes liquid Precipitation  When water falls out of the atmosphere

12 Nutrient Cycles 3 main Nutrient Cycles  Carbon  Nitrogen  Phosphorus

13 Nutrient Cycles Carbon Cycle  Found in several large reservoirs in biosphere  Atmosphere = CO2  Oceans = Dissolved CO2  Land = in organisms, soil & rocks  Underground = Coal, Petroleum & Calcium Carbonate  In Life = base of all organic molecules

14 Nutrient Cycles Nitrogen Cycle  Required to build proteins, DNA, RNA  Atmospheric Nitrogen  N2 = Non-usable form for most organisms Needs to be “fixed” Nitrogen Fixation Process of N2 being converted into ammonia, nitrates & nitrites by bacteria Relatively small amounts of N2 can be fixed by Lightning Denitrification When N2 is released by soil bacteria who use nitrates for energy  Fertilizer  Huge human influence in adding excess Nitrates & Nitrites into aquatic ecosystems Can cause algal blooms

15 Nutrient Cycles Phosphorus Cycle  Essential for creation of DNA, RNA  Not very abundant in biosphere  Remains mostly on land in rock, soil, & sediments  As rock & sediments wear down, P is released to environment.

16 Nutrient Cycles Nutrient Limitation  Limiting Nutrient  The nutrient whose supply limits productivity  In Soil  Typically Limiting Nutrients are: Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, P, Fixed N,  In Ocean  Typically Limiting Nutrients are: Fixed N


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