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Ch 11 Sec 5 Russian Revolution 1917-1921 The symbol… Sickle Poor field workers, farmers. Hammer Poor industrial workers.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 11 Sec 5 Russian Revolution 1917-1921 The symbol… Sickle Poor field workers, farmers. Hammer Poor industrial workers."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ch 11 Sec 5 Russian Revolution

3 The symbol… Sickle Poor field workers, farmers. Hammer Poor industrial workers

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5 Hammer: Workers Sickle: Peasants Star: Communist Party

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7 Russia: Fall of Tsarist monarchy to Stalin’s Soviet Union Source A: Map of the Russian Empire in 1900 What does Source A tell you about the Russian Empire in 1900?

8 Russia: Fall of Tsarist monarchy to Stalin’s Soviet Union Source B: Peasants in Tsarist Russia What can you infer about peasants in Tsarist Russia? (5)

9 Russia: Fall of Tsarist monarchy to Stalin’s Soviet Union Source C: Workers in Tsarist Russia What can you infer about working conditions in Tsarist Russia? (5)

10 Russia: Fall of Tsarist monarchy to Stalin’s Soviet Union Source C: Coronation of Tsar Nicholas II What does this source tell you about the Tsar? (5)

11 The last Russian tsar, who ruled from 1894 until Nicholas II, who assumed the throne with trepidation upon his father Alexander III’s death, was a clumsy and ineffective leader whose avoidance of direct involvement in government caused resentment among the Russian people and resulted in violence in Nicholas II abdicated on March 2, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution. In July 1918, the Bolsheviks executed Nicholas along with his wife, Alexandra, and their children. Nicholas II – The last Russian Czar

12 Overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II Conditions leading to the downfall of Nicholas II Conditions leading to the downfall of Nicholas II –Military defeats: Russo-Japanese War in 1904 and mounting losses in World War I –Incompetence and Unpopular rule of Nicholas II: food and fuel shortages, terror tactics of secret police. –Social injustice: poor workers seeking access to land and equality

13 March Revolution In March of 1917, women and factory workers in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) sought food and better working conditions. In March of 1917, women and factory workers in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) sought food and better working conditions. –Tsar ordered his troops to stop the uprising. –When the troops refused to open fire and eventually joined the crowd, the Tsar essentially lost all control. –He abdicated his throne (gave up power)

14 Russia: Fall of Tsarist monarchy to Stalin’s Soviet Union Source D: A painting of Bloody Sunday from 1910 What can you infer about Russian views towards the Tsar? (5)

15 Duma sets up provisional government Duma- Russian parliament Duma- Russian parliament Provisional (temporary) government led by Alexander Kerensky failed to control the country. Provisional (temporary) government led by Alexander Kerensky failed to control the country. –Continued to fight World War I –Failed to give the people reforms that they were seeking  Land and supplies

16 Russia: Fall of Tsarist monarchy to Stalin’s Soviet Union Source F: Effects of World War I “as early as the beginning of the second year, desertions of soldiers at the front became commonplace. The average number of deserters reached 25%. I happen to know of three cases where the train was stopped because there were no passengers on it. All except the officer in command had fled.” Chairman of the Military Commission of the Duma Why did the speaker make the comments in Source F? (5)

17 (a.k.a. Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov) The founder of the Bolshevik Party, organizer of the October Revolution, and the first leader of the Soviet Union. Lenin spent most of the early twentieth century living in exile in Europe (primarily Britain and Switzerland). He was a devout follower of Marxism and believed that once a Communist revolution took place in Russia, Communism would spread rapidly around the world. Though not involved in the February Revolution, he returned to Russia in April 1917 and orchestrated the October Revolution that turned Russia into a Communist state. Vladimir Lenin

18 October (November) Revolution a.k.a. Bolshevik Revolution Vladmir Lenin’s party comes to power. Vladmir Lenin’s party comes to power. –Bolsheviks- means the majority- “red”  name that they gave to themselves to portray strength in spite of the fact that they were a very small minority  Bolsheviks were considered radical socialists who wanted to force communism on the country

19 Germany takes advantage of Russian unrest Germany knows USA coming to Western front; wants to get rid of Russians on Eastern front Germany knows USA coming to Western front; wants to get rid of Russians on Eastern front Helps exiled Lenin to return Helps exiled Lenin to return

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21 –Lenin promised “Peace, Land, Bread” –…and “All power to the Soviets.” –Soviets - council of workers and soldiers used to gain more support for the Bolsheviks –Cheka - secret police created to halt all opposition. –Commisars - political agents who made sure the army stayed politically aligned with the Bolsheviks

22 Opposition to the Bolsheviks “Whites” Forces loyal to the Tsar fought to stop the Bolsheviks. Forces loyal to the Tsar fought to stop the Bolsheviks. Mensheviks were moderate socialists who wanted gradual change. They opposed the extremist views of the Bolsheviks. Mensheviks were moderate socialists who wanted gradual change. They opposed the extremist views of the Bolsheviks.

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24 Execution of the Romanov’s

25 White Army poster depicting Trotsky as a Jewish Devil

26 November Revolution 1917

27 Civil War breaks out – Reds vs. Whites Civil War breaks out – Reds vs. Whites Bolsheviks prevail through sheer brutality – even when out numbered. Bolsheviks prevail through sheer brutality – even when out numbered. Vladimir Lenin leads the revolution based upon his own interpretations of the writings of Karl Marx Vladimir Lenin leads the revolution based upon his own interpretations of the writings of Karl Marx Lenin signs Treaty of Brest-Litvosk with Germany to get out of war Lenin signs Treaty of Brest-Litvosk with Germany to get out of war

28 Creation of a new state Bolsheviks “reds” win the civil war Bolsheviks “reds” win the civil war. Unite most of the former Russian empire together to create the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/CCCP) or Soviet Union Unite most of the former Russian empire together to create the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/CCCP) or Soviet Union New Economic Policy (NEP)- New Economic Policy (NEP)- –government controls banks, foreign trade and large industries. –Small companies allowed to operate for profit. –Farmers were allowed to sell surplus crops. –Lenin thought of this plan as a “temporary” capitalist fix to a bad economy

29 November Revolution 1917

30 Lenin’s Death Died in January Died in January Believed Leon Trotsky should replace him as leader. Trotsky had successfully lead Red Army against the White Army. Had a vision of the Soviet Union in line with Lenin. He wanted to focus on agriculture. Believed Leon Trotsky should replace him as leader. Trotsky had successfully lead Red Army against the White Army. Had a vision of the Soviet Union in line with Lenin. He wanted to focus on agriculture.

31 A Bolshevik leader and one of the most prominent figures of the October Revolution. Trotsky, who was in exile abroad during the February Revolution, returned to Russia in May 1917, closely aligned himself with Lenin, and joined the Bolshevik Party during the summer. Trotsky headed the Revolutionary Military Committee, which provided the military muscle for the October Revolution. After the revolution, he was appointed commissar of foreign affairs and led Russia’s negotiations with Germany and Austria for the armistice and subsequent peace treaty that made possible Russia’s exit from World War I. Leon Trotsky (a.k.a. Leon Bronstein)

32 Lenin’s Death Lenin believed that Stalin could not handle the power that came with leadership. Stalin believed in the industrialization of the nation. Lenin believed that Stalin could not handle the power that came with leadership. Stalin believed in the industrialization of the nation.

33 (a.k.a. Joseph Dzhugashvili) A Bolshevik leader who became prominent only after Lenin’s return to Petrograd in April Although Stalin was very much a secondary figure during the October Revolution, he did gain Lenin’s attention as a useful ally, and following the October coup, Lenin gave him a position in the government as commissar of nationalities. As Stalin was a member of an ethnic minority—he was from the central Asian region of Georgia, not Russia proper— Lenin felt he would be an effective ambassador of sorts to the many ethnic minorities within the former Russian Empire. After the revolution, Stalin became increasingly powerful and eventually succeeded Lenin as leader of the Soviet Union upon Lenin’s death in Joseph Stalin

34 The Rise of Stalin Communist party was divided between Leon Trotsky, an “ideas man” and Joseph Stalin, a “behind the scenes” politician. In Trotsky fled the USSR and continued to speak out against Stalin. In Trotsky fled the USSR and continued to speak out against Stalin. In 1940 Trotsky was killed by Stalin’s men in Mexico City In 1940 Trotsky was killed by Stalin’s men in Mexico City

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