Presentation on theme: "Russian Revolution CH 11.5. Russian Czars ► ► Russian Czars were autocrats with unlimited power. ► ► Czars owned railroads, industrial plants, and millions."— Presentation transcript:
Russian Revolution CH 11.5
Russian Czars ► ► Russian Czars were autocrats with unlimited power. ► ► Czars owned railroads, industrial plants, and millions of acres of Land. ► ► They used their wealth to build palaces & to lavishly entertain guests. ► ► The royal throne was encrusted with more than 870 diamonds and hundreds of other precious jewels.
Czars had Absolute Power ► ► They controlled nearly half the peasant population. ► ► There was no parliament or court system to question their decisions. ► ► They could appoint and dismiss all government ministers. ► ► The Czar commanded the army and headed the Russian Orthodox Church. ► ► “The czar is a father, his subjects are his children, and children ought never to question their parents.” Czar Nicholas I
March Revolution ► Unrest Deepens Nicholas Romanov II ~ Czar of Russia ► Weak and ineffective leader fails to solve Russia’s basic political, economic, & social problems. ► Elected Duma has no real power to make changes Moderates pressed for a constitution and social change Nicholas blocked attempts to limit his power ► Revolutionaries plotted to over throw the Tsar Made up of Marxists and the proletariat (workers)
March Revolution ► Impact of WWI Factories could not produce enough supplies Transportation system broke down By 1915 many soldiers didn’t have riffles or ammunition ► 2 million casualties in just 1915 Nicholas takes charge of the “front” ► Military disaster Alexandra is left in charge of domestic issues ► Alexandra relies on the advice of G. Rasputin (self proclaimed “holy man”)
March Revolution ► Czar Steps Down March 1917 ► Disasters on the front, low fuel and food brought the monarchy to collapse. Workers went on strike Women marched for bread ► Duma politicians establish a provisional government Begin to prepare a constitution War with Germany continued ► Bolsheviks (radical socialist group) take charge
Lenin & the Bolsheviks ► Brilliant Revolutionary Read the works of Karl Marx & participated in student demonstrations ► Spread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialists ► Lenin's View of K. Marx Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions ► Called for an elite group to lead the revolution, used the name “Bolshevik” meaning majority ► Lenin Believed only revolution could bring about needed changes “Long Live the world-wide Socialist revolution!” V.I. Lenin
Bolsheviks Rise to Power ► Provisional govt’s mistakes Led by A. Kerensky ► Failed to end the war and deal with land reform ► Growing numbers of troops mutinied and peasants seized land ► Bolshevik takeover Nov Red Guard attacked & overthrew the Provisional Government ► Workers are given control of factories and mines ► New Flag w/ hammer and sickle symbolized the union between workers and peasants
Civil War ► Opposing Forces Civil war raged for 3yrs. Between the “Reds” and the counterrevolutionary “Whites”. ► White armies were made up of tsarist imperial officers ► “Allies” supported the Whites fed the Communist distrust of the West. War under Communism ► Used terror against the “Whites” & to control their own people ► Cheka (secret police) & forced labor camps are created ► “War Communism”- Banks, factories, & railroads are taken over ► Under Trotsky Red army is turned into an effective force ► Communists defeat their “foes”
Building the Communist Soviet Union ► New government same problems 1923 Lenin renames Russia to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) ► Constitution w/ both democratic & socialist ideas is created Elected legislature, citizens the right to vote (18yrs.), all production belonged to workers & peasants. However Communist Party (NOT the people) had control (just as the Russian tsars did).
Building the Communist Soviet Union ► Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) Allowed for some capitalist ventures, ► small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit ► peasants could hold small plots of land & sell extra crops Govt. still controlled banks, foreign trade, & large industries By 1928 food and industrial production were back to pre-war levels. ► Stalin takes over 1924 Lenin dies ► Chief contenders Leon Trotsky & Joseph Stalin ► Stalin outmaneuvers Trotsky and assumes control of USSR