2Russian Czars Russian Czars were autocrats with unlimited power. Czars owned railroads, industrial plants, and millions of acres of Land.They used their wealth to build palaces & to lavishly entertain guests.The royal throne was encrusted with more than 870 diamonds and hundreds of other precious jewels.
3Czars had Absolute Power They controlled nearly half the peasant population.There was no parliament or court system to question their decisions.They could appoint and dismiss all government ministers.The Czar commanded the army and headed the Russian Orthodox Church.“The czar is a father, his subjects are his children, and children ought never to question their parents.”Czar Nicholas I
4March Revolution Unrest Deepens Nicholas Romanov II ~ Czar of Russia Weak and ineffective leader fails to solve Russia’s basic political, economic, & social problems.Elected Duma has no real power to make changesModerates pressed for a constitution and social changeNicholas blocked attempts to limit his powerRevolutionaries plotted to over throw the TsarMade up of Marxists and the proletariat (workers)
6March Revolution Impact of WWI Factories could not produce enough suppliesTransportation system broke downBy 1915 many soldiers didn’t have riffles or ammunition2 million casualties in just 1915Nicholas takes charge of the “front”Military disasterAlexandra is left in charge of domestic issuesAlexandra relies on the advice of G. Rasputin (self proclaimed “holy man”)
7March Revolution Czar Steps Down March 1917 Disasters on the front, low fuel and food brought the monarchy to collapse.Workers went on strikeWomen marched for breadDuma politicians establish a provisional governmentBegin to prepare a constitutionWar with Germany continuedBolsheviks (radical socialist group) take charge
8Lenin & the Bolsheviks Brilliant Revolutionary Lenin's View of K. Marx Read the works of Karl Marx & participated in student demonstrationsSpread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialistsLenin's View of K. MarxLenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditionsCalled for an elite group to lead the revolution, used the name “Bolshevik” meaning majorityLenin Believed only revolution could bring about needed changes“Long Live the world-wide Socialist revolution!” V.I. Lenin
9Bolsheviks Rise to Power Provisional govt’s mistakesLed by A. KerenskyFailed to end the war and deal with land reformGrowing numbers of troops mutinied and peasants seized landBolshevik takeoverNov Red Guard attacked & overthrew the Provisional GovernmentWorkers are given control of factories and minesNew Flag w/ hammer and sickle symbolized the union between workers and peasants
10Civil War Opposing Forces Civil war raged for 3yrs. Between the “Reds” and the counterrevolutionary “Whites”.White armies were made up of tsarist imperial officers“Allies” supported the Whitesfed the Communist distrust of the West.War under CommunismUsed terror against the “Whites” & to control their own peopleCheka (secret police) & forced labor camps are created“War Communism”- Banks, factories, & railroads are taken overUnder Trotsky Red army is turned into an effective force1921- Communists defeat their “foes”
11Building the Communist Soviet Union New government same problems1923 Lenin renames Russia to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)Constitution w/ both democratic & socialist ideas is createdElected legislature, citizens the right to vote (18yrs.), all production belonged to workers & peasants.However Communist Party (NOT the people) had control (just as the Russian tsars did).
12Building the Communist Soviet Union Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP)Allowed for some capitalist ventures,small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profitpeasants could hold small plots of land & sell extra cropsGovt. still controlled banks, foreign trade, & large industriesBy 1928 food and industrial production were back to pre-war levels.Stalin takes over1924 Lenin diesChief contenders Leon Trotsky & Joseph StalinStalin outmaneuvers Trotsky and assumes control of USSR